26

The list of ingredients on the can mentions "Zuckerkulör," which is caramel colour, which can have 2 kcal/g, according to one producer. Next, there is "Citronensäure," which is citric acid, which can, as other organic acids, have 2-3 kcal/g, according to this source. There is also taurine, which is an amino acid-like compound, so it could, like proteins, ...


15

I volunteered for 3 years at a large mammal laboratory where we diligently tracked the weight and caloric intake of each of our animals. Diets were weighed out each morning and total calories could be calculated based on the known caloric value of the particular food item. We fed our animals during training sessions and would adjust the individual's food ...


5

Yes, it is possible that there is a vitamin or other essential nutrient that has not been identified so far. Essential nutrient means any substance normally consumed as a constituent of food which is needed for growth and development and/or the maintenance of life and which cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by the body (fao.org). Essential nutrients ...


5

Seems to be about the same. In Effect of Genotype and Environment on the Glycoalkaloid Content of Rare, Heritage, and Commercial Potato Varieties, Tables 1 and 2 list 60 different potato varieties showing glycoalkaloid concentration (solanine and chaconine are shown separately); Table 1 indicates the skin color, and Table 2 indicates the flesh color. "...


4

Both pasteurisation and irradiation work by killing micro- (and macro-) organisms in food. The two processes are broadly similar and in both cases the objective is to reduce the number of bacteria or other microorganisms in the food rather than completely sterilise it. Due to this and other similarities food irradiation is sometimes called cold ...


4

Soap or detergent does nothing to kill organisms. Instead each detergent molecule has two ends, one being hydrophobic (meaning it's repelled by water) and the other end is hydrophilic (attaching the end to water). When anything is washed with soap or detergent, the oils and dirt on the object - whether it's a dish or your hands - can combine with water as ...


4

This is probably to prevent precipitation of copper hydroxide (see Itzhaki & Gill, 1964 - they suggest adding dilute copper sulfate slowly to the NaOH solution to avoid this). If you have the protein already alkalized and ready to react you'll get the color reaction before precipitate forms. Commercial premixed solutions, like @canadianer mentioned in a ...


3

In our university, this is regulated by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee This organization provides guidance for humane and responsible management of laboratory animals. These protocols were established, and still modified, to enable optimal well-being of animals, as researchers extremely interested in robust and stable conditions for their ...


3

Yes. Pork has substantially less heme than beef (Cross et al. 2013). As to why the red colour is lost, it is due to the Maillard reaction, by which the iron in the myglobin is oxidized from Fe(II) to Fe(III). This results in a colour change in the meat (Tamanna & Mahmood 2015). Sources: Cross AJ, Harnly JM, Ferrucci LM, Risch A, Mayne ST, Sinha R. ...


3

I am not so familiar with enzymatic kits for quantifying glutamine, but most enzyme-based analysis kits come with a number of fairly strong assumptions on the enzymology involved, and in my experience they are difficult to use reliably. Commercial kits are hopeless to troubleshoot since their components are not disclosed --- you don't know what you're ...


3

It looks like that yeast has been engineered to produce starch. First of all, the authors had to knock out the genes responsible for the glycogen metabolism pathway (both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis). Then they introduced eight genes known to belong to the amylopectin biosynthetic pathway. The authors succeeded in having starch granules in yeast. You ...


3

Scrambled eggs can change color, but you perhaps haven't run into a batch that shows discoloration. It is the same chemical reaction: Why Scrambled Eggs Turn Green When serving a large group, a buffet can provide enough food for everyone without the need to spend all of your time in the kitchen. Breakfast is a fairly simple buffet to set up, but ...


2

There are a lot of things you could test for. The thing that come to mind off the top of my head is cholesterol. This will be present in all animal meat, since all animals muscles contain cholesterol, whereas meat substitutes usually do not. That said, there are other options as well (such as starch vs. glycogen levels, for example), and even molecules ...


2

We are part of a biological system, and we evolved to be part of it. Plants are the base of that system, and the main means of capturing energy and inorganic compounds and converting them to nutrients which are bio-available, along with bacteria. The further we move from the niche we evolved to occupy, and the further we change the environment of the rest ...


1

You mix those two chemicals to get a Cu(OH) 2 colloid, if you mixed them earlier it would settle down and not form a colorful complex (as efficiently). Base is added first because (i presume) it denaturates the protein which partly unfolds it, allowing copper ions to form complexes along a greater surface, giving clearer results.


1

Inside the intestinal lumen, di- and triacylglycerol are hydrolysed to free fatty acid and monoglyceride by lipase. These diffuse through the plasma membrane of enterocyte where they will used to resynthetize triacylglycerol, and ultimately the lipoprotein chylomicron for transport into the general circulation. Contrary to what your question seems to ...


1

Egg shells look as if they're solid, but in fact they're filled with tiny pores through which air can and does diffuse. ...up to the time when internal pipping takes place, when pulmonary ventilation is initiated, about 20 liters (O2 + CO2 + water vapor) have passed through 10,000 pores of an 80 gm egg. --Pores and gas exchange of avian eggs: a review. ...


1

In addition to killing microorganisms, the salt may provide a better environment for some 'beneficial' organisms, and a less beneficial environment for other 'problem' organisms. For instance, in production of kimchi and sauerkraut, salt encourages lactofermentation to the detriment of more harmful bacteria and fungi.


1

Technically agar has first been used (and still is) in the kitchen and then adopted to the lab. In the 19th century, gelatin was used in the microbial laboratory. The problem is that gelatin is much less thermostable than agar and at higher cultivation temperatures plates will melt and get liquid again. In 1882 the german microbiologistt Walther Hesse (at ...


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