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70

The three "holes" are the result of the 3 carpels in coconut flowers, and three carpels is typical of the family Arecaceae (Palms). The "holes" are actually germination pores, where one is usually functional and the other two are plugged. The new coconunt shoot will emerge from the functional, open, germination pore. For further info and pictures, see this ...


47

Sugars in 100% natural fruit juices are chemically the same as in whole fruits. They mainly include glucose, fructose and sucrose: Apple nutrition data (expand the carbohydrate section) Apple juice nutrition data Sugars in whole fruits are "incorporated" into the fruit, which means the digestive system first needs to physically decompose the fruit and then ...


20

Seeds are spread by many mechanisms Wind dispersal: When air currents used to spread seeds. Often these plants have evolved features to facilitate wind catching, for example dandelions. Aka, anemochory. Propulsion & bursting: When seeds are propelled from the plant in an such as in these videos. This is called Ballochory. Water: Similarly to wind ...


20

Short answer Walnuts are classified both as nuts and drupes ('stone fruits'). background According to University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Botany , hickory and walnut can be classified both as drupes and nuts, but are best classified as nuts. Nuts fall into the class of indehiscent fruits: dry fruits that do not open when mature to shed their ...


18

It's probably Arbutus unedo, strawberry tree. Native to Mediterranean region and some part of western Ireland. Edit: I've just spot that you found it in California, so it's probably one of north american Arbutus species, eg. Arbutus menziesii.


13

It looks to me (although I'd want to use a microscope to check) like the black dots are xylem. When you cut the fruit, you've severed the xylem and also exposed the flat surface. Three main things have then happened: The increased surface area has led to the 'fleshy' part of the fruit contracting as the cells dehydrate. The stiffer, lignified xylem tubes ...


12

A true nut, botanically speaking, is a hard-shelled pod that contains both the fruit and seed of the plant, where the fruit does not open to release the seed to the world. Some examples of botanical nuts are chestnuts, hazelnuts, and acorns. A drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell (what we sometimes call a pit) ...


11

There are three types of endosperms encountered in botany - nuclear, heliobial and cellular. The endosperm of Cocos nucifera is both special and interesting. Initially, the cocunut is a nuclear liquid endosperm. Meaning, it is a coenocytic liquid tissue with lots of rapidly dividing nuclei. The reference I cite here (although pretty old), states that it is ...


11

They are not individual cells. In fact, the "juice sacs" (as they are known) are actually specialized, multicellular hairs: Juice sacs originate as multicellular hairs in which the interior of the enlarged distal part breaks down and fills with liquid. The juice sacs constitute the fleshy, edible pulp of an orange and are the source of the sweet juice. (...


11

The seed pods reminded me of the Apocynaceae, so I searched for "apocynaceae china" and found this University of Hawaii page where it is identified as Stemmadenia litoralis. However, a little more looking it seems Tabernaemontana litoralis may be the preferred name. There is some debate here. This book may hold the final answer regarding the genus. Your ...


10

Pumpkins, squashes in general, grow on vines, while apples grow on trees. Vines are fast growing and trees are not. Zucchini can be quite large; cucumbers, too. Pears, plums, peaches and other tree fruits do have a reduced variation in fruit size. While I do not know the answer to your question, my background in plant biology tells me that this is an ...


10

They are basically conjoined apples which share a common stalk. They are rare but do happen. Here is an article of one discovered in a backyard. conjoined apple discovered in a store (reference) It apparently happens because of bad weather conditions, stress and insect damage. Fused fruits are also found in the case of cherries, watermelons, peaches etc. ...


10

I think this looks a lot like a pale variety of Solanum Muricatum or Pepino dulce/melon/pear. It's native to South America, but I think that it would be able to be cultivated in India as well.


9

The reason for this is the oxidation of phenol residues in the banana (for example in the yellow color) which get oxidized by the enzyme Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) to melanins. The scheme (the image is from this website on food browning) looks like this (you can of course also use more complicated substrates): For further information, see these references: ...


9

That is a papaya seed showing vivipary, or premature sprouting. The plant is getting all the sugar it needs from the nutrients stored in the seed so it does not photosynthesize. If it were to run out, the plant would die.


9

Plu Code 4413 is a bosc pear (a cultivar of Pyrus communis). From the PLU search tool available via the International Federation for Produce Standards FYI: take a close look at the pear you're holding in your picture: Pera canela, meaning "cinnamon pear" in English, is in reference to its color. From Wikipedia: Famous for its warm cinnamon color


8

A true fruit is a ripened ovary that usually starts ripening when it is fertilized. And vegetable is any vegetative part of the plant which is edible and contains stored food probably in the form of starch. These definitions are not exact as there are a lot of fruits which are fruits but do not strictly follow the given definition. See Syconus, Composite ...


8

To answer your question of what the gas is, how about the glowing splint test for oxygen! I guess it might work with a recently snuffed out match too. Cut a plug in the the pepper but leave it in place until you have the glowing match ready, then quickly open the plug and hold the match into the opening. It should relight if it is oxygen and you may hear a ...


8

Looks like a papaya that isn't ripe yet. Being said, if you already cut it in half it probably isn't going to ripen any further. A ripe papaya has pink/orange flesh and the seeds turn black.


7

I'm guessing that what they mean by 'maximize nutrition' for digestion is that they are assuming that the cells are broken open. This would make the co-factors we call vitamins, protein and sugars freely available to the digestive system and more easily absorbed. I think it is a marketing literature claim, though the blender may have some valid ...


7

Drinking the juice without the fruit can easily lead to over-consumption. It is after all harder to eat four apples than drinking 500ml apple juice. As the liver breaks the fructose through lipogenesis it creates fat and can cause non-alcoholic fatty liver and obesity. Since sugar (fructose/glucose/sucrose et al.) can be absorbed already through the mucus ...


6

Here is a website that presents very accuerately the tree of life: tolweb.org/tree Yes, they have a common ancestor just like any other living things! How closely related are they? Both species are: Eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) Archaeplastidae (plants) Angiosperms (flowering plants) Then, they split their way! Here is the tolweb.org page that ...


6

Kaleb Lechowski, creator of that video, is a digital creator and animator of critters. I would propose that he did a very good job of rendering a CGI spider to burst from a banana. Spiders (which are not insects remember) won't eat bananas. In fact, only one species is known to be mostly herbivorous: Bagheera kiplingi. However, don't eat that banana just ...


6

it looks like medlar. Medlar is a fruit sized about 4cm (1 1/2 inch). it must be common medlar. You can find out more about this interesting fruit here at Wikipedia. The medlar was already being cultivated about three thousand years ago in the Caspian Sea region of northern Iran and Azerbaijan. It was introduced to Greece around 700 BC, and to Rome about ...


6

Phenotypic variance This variance in the appearance of living things is called phenotypic variance. There are a number of reasons for the existence of such phenotypic variance. In other words there are a number of underlying variances that can explain phenotypic variances. Primary source of phenotypic variance The two most obvious source of phenotypic ...


6

Now I have the answer, and if you are reading this soon after eating the fruit you should probably seek medical attention. Looks like Cascabela theviata which is in the Apocynaceae and the Wikipedia article makes clear that the fruit is also poisonous.


6

Considering how many of them I’ve seen growing on the ground where I live in PA, it’s likely a mock strawberry. The plants grow on runners on the ground and have yellow flowers with five petals that become the fruit. The seeds come off easily when you rub it. They’re safe to eat (wash them and make sure your lawn isn’t treated with chemicals though) but ...


6

It is difficult to say, but it is likely due to disease. Many plant diseases have the effect of convincing plant tissues that they are some other organ than what they actually are, which leads to deformations. I was not able to find anything that looked as dramatic as the image that you show, but there are similar diseases in stone fruits that deform fruit: ...


6

I found the name: it appears to be Garcinia humilis, known commonly as achachairú or achach: Garcinia humilis, known commonly as achachairú or achacha, is a small, prolifically-fruiting tree related to the mangosteen. It grows in the southern part of the Amazon basin in the central area of Bolivia, but has recently been planted on a commercial scale in ...


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