The three "holes" are the result of the 3 carpels in coconut flowers, and three carpels is typical of the family Arecaceae (Palms). The "holes" are actually germination pores, where one is usually functional and the other two are plugged. The new coconunt shoot will emerge from the functional, open, germination pore.
For further info and pictures, see this ...
Sugars in 100% natural fruit juices are chemically the same as in whole fruits. They mainly include glucose, fructose and sucrose:
Apple nutrition data (expand the carbohydrate section)
Apple juice nutrition data
Sugars in whole fruits are "incorporated" into the fruit, which means the digestive system first needs to physically decompose the fruit and then ...
Seeds are spread by many mechanisms
Wind dispersal: When air currents used to spread seeds. Often these plants have evolved features to facilitate wind catching, for example dandelions. Aka, anemochory.
Propulsion & bursting: When seeds are propelled from the plant in an such as in these videos. This is called Ballochory.
Water: Similarly to wind ...
Walnuts are classified both as nuts and drupes ('stone fruits').
According to University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Botany , hickory and walnut can be classified both as drupes and nuts, but are best classified as nuts.
Nuts fall into the class of indehiscent fruits: dry fruits that do not open when mature to shed their ...
The short answer: Fruits are large compared to seeds because humans have made them large.
In the natural environment, there is a different set of evolutionary pressures. A fruit has to be able to successfully propagate itself using its seeds, while commercially farmed fruit is usually cloned via vegetative propagation. Therefore, the commercial farmed ...
A true nut, botanically speaking, is a hard-shelled pod that contains
both the fruit and seed of the plant, where the fruit does not open to
release the seed to the world. Some examples of botanical nuts are
chestnuts, hazelnuts, and acorns.
A drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a
shell (what we sometimes call a pit) ...
They are not individual cells. In fact, the "juice sacs" (as they are known) are actually specialized, multicellular hairs:
Juice sacs originate as multicellular hairs in which the interior of the enlarged distal part breaks down and fills with liquid. The juice sacs constitute the fleshy, edible pulp of an orange and are the source of the sweet juice.
There are three types of endosperms encountered in botany - nuclear, heliobial and cellular. The endosperm of Cocos nucifera is both special and interesting.
Initially, the cocunut is a nuclear liquid endosperm. Meaning, it is a coenocytic liquid tissue with lots of rapidly dividing nuclei. The reference I cite here (although pretty old), states that it is ...
The seed pods reminded me of the Apocynaceae, so I searched for "apocynaceae china" and found this University of Hawaii page where it is identified as Stemmadenia litoralis. However, a little more looking it seems Tabernaemontana litoralis may be the preferred name. There is some debate here. This book may hold the final answer regarding the genus.
They are basically conjoined apples which share a common stalk. They are rare but do happen. Here is an article of one discovered in a backyard.
conjoined apple discovered in a store (reference)
It apparently happens because of bad weather conditions, stress and insect damage. Fused fruits are also found in the case of cherries, watermelons, peaches etc.
The reason for this is the oxidation of phenol residues in the banana (for example in the yellow color) which get oxidized by the enzyme Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) to melanins. The scheme (the image is from this website on food browning) looks like this (you can of course also use more complicated substrates):
For further information, see these references:
That is a papaya seed showing vivipary, or premature sprouting. The plant is getting all the sugar it needs from the nutrients stored in the seed so it does not photosynthesize. If it were to run out, the plant would die.
Plu Code 4413 is a bosc pear (a cultivar of Pyrus communis).
From the PLU search tool available via the International Federation for Produce Standards
FYI: take a close look at the pear you're holding in your picture:
Pera canela, meaning "cinnamon pear" in English, is in reference to its color. From Wikipedia:
Famous for its warm cinnamon color
Kaleb Lechowski, creator of that video, is a digital creator and animator of critters. I would propose that he did a very good job of rendering a CGI spider to burst from a banana.
Spiders (which are not insects remember) won't eat bananas. In fact, only one species is known to be mostly herbivorous: Bagheera kiplingi.
However, don't eat that banana just ...
It is difficult to say, but it is likely due to disease. Many plant diseases have the effect of convincing plant tissues that they are some other organ than what they actually are, which leads to deformations.
I was not able to find anything that looked as dramatic as the image that you show, but there are similar diseases in stone fruits that deform fruit:
Drinking the juice without the fruit can easily lead to over-consumption. It is after all harder to eat four apples than drinking 500ml apple juice.
As the liver breaks the fructose through lipogenesis it creates fat and can cause non-alcoholic fatty liver and obesity.
Since sugar (fructose/glucose/sucrose et al.) can be absorbed already through the mucus ...
Great question! I have done some research on the topic and found so much interesting information. It still seems like a topic that i being researched on, but so far, the research shows that malate is created by a CAM and C4 like pathway while citrate is created from TCA cycle. Their functions are that they are important biomolecules in ...
it looks like medlar. Medlar is a fruit sized about 4cm (1 1/2 inch). it must be common medlar.
You can find out more about this interesting fruit here at Wikipedia.
The medlar was already being cultivated about three thousand years ago in the Caspian Sea region of northern Iran and Azerbaijan. It was introduced to Greece around 700 BC, and to Rome about ...
Here is a website that presents very accuerately the tree of life: tolweb.org/tree
Yes, they have a common ancestor just like any other living things! How closely related are they?
Both species are:
Eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus)
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Then, they split their way! Here is the tolweb.org page that ...
This variance in the appearance of living things is called phenotypic variance. There are a number of reasons for the existence of such phenotypic variance. In other words there are a number of underlying variances that can explain phenotypic variances.
Primary source of phenotypic variance
The two most obvious source of phenotypic ...
Now I have the answer, and if you are reading this soon after eating the fruit you should probably seek medical attention.
Looks like Cascabela theviata which is in the Apocynaceae and the Wikipedia article makes clear that the fruit is also poisonous.
Considering how many of them I’ve seen growing on the ground where I live in PA, it’s likely a mock strawberry. The plants grow on runners on the ground and have yellow flowers with five petals that become the fruit. The seeds come off easily when you rub it.
They’re safe to eat (wash them and make sure your lawn isn’t treated with chemicals though) but ...
This is a guess, but perhaps the result of an infection by a fungal plant pathogen related to Taphrina deformans. T deformans infects species of the genus Prunus (i.e. the genus of prunes and apricots), but it's best known for causing peach leaf curl in another Prunus species, peaches.
For example, see this image of T. deformans infecting a leaf in Catalonia,...
I found the name: it appears to be Garcinia humilis, known commonly as achachairú or achach:
Garcinia humilis, known commonly as achachairú or achacha, is a small, prolifically-fruiting tree related to the mangosteen. It grows in the southern part of the Amazon basin in the central area of Bolivia, but has recently been planted on a commercial scale in ...
It is horse chestnut it is very common to plant chestnut trees in public parks and a lot of people do have them around their property and by the side of many roads.
What you have in your picture is the fruit and the leaves on the ground confirms that this is horse chestnut.
The nut is poisonus and ...
Howe and Smallwood (1982) provide a nice review of the many methods of seed dispersal that have evolved in plants. The review is broad but they do have a section on frugivory. They highlight hypotheses developed by McKey, and Howe and Estabrook (see Howe and Smallwood for citations) that suggest plants may use one of two strategies.
One strategy is the "...