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The anus of Octopus is channeled into its siphon. Image taken from Carina M. Gsottbauer Note: Siphon is a tube that leads from the mantle to the outside. Octopuses use their siphon to force water out in jets for propulsion and to flush waste products from the anus. From Encyclopedia of the Aquatic World, Volume 6 By Marshall Cavendish Corporation


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Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


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It's a fascinating topic! While most of the bacteria known to colonize babies comes from the vaginal tract during birth and then later, through breastfeeding, although there is evidence to suggest that microbial colonization may begin before birth. Regarding what these bacteria are, our microbiomes are composed of probably hundreds of species of bacteria ...


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Goblet cells. These are specialized epithelial cells whose job it is to produce mucins. Mucous role is not only important in protecting the epithelium of the digestive tract from HCl, it is also a very important substance in the innate immune system, acting as a barrier defense to trap pathogens and/or prevent them from breaching the epithelium and gaining ...


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This is a bit hard because the usual composition statements are a combination of different types of molecules. Most of faeces are, by dry weight, bacteria (30%), undigested food and fiber (30%), fat (10%-20%), inorganic matter( 10-20%), other protein(2-3%). (reference) As you can see the bacterial portion contains proteins (amino acids) and other types of ...


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Article: How influenza virus infection might lead to gastrointestinal symptoms Source study: Respiratory influenza virus infection induces intestinal immune injury via microbiota-mediated Th17 cell-dependent inflammation. The idea is that Influenza virus infection originates in the respiratory tract. In response, the body produces these CCR9+CD4+ Th cells ...


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When the mother eat beans, the fiber (oligosaccharides) from them is not digested in the small intestine, so it travels to the large intestine, where normal intestinal bacteria break it down to some absorbable nutrients (like short-chain fatty acids) and gas that is largerly expelled (fao.org). Some gas can be absorbed into the blood and then removed by the ...


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If you have no medical background at all, you will need a general text that teaches more than just digestive physiology. That is because you need to understand the function of other systems that have an influence over the digestive system (for example, the peripheral nervous system). Here are a few good general references to get you started: Physiology by ...


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From studies, lactic acid bacteria were found to be more resistant to GP (garlic powder) compared to the clostridial members of the gut microbiota. While for most bacteria the antimicrobial effect was transient, the lactobacilli showed a degree of resistance to garlic, indicating that its consumption may favour the growth of these beneficial ...


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The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


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When discussing the control of gut motility there is more to mention than the use of serotonergics and opioids - a number of peptide and nonpeptide neurotransmitters are important. Somatostatin and nitric oxide are two examples which each happen be inhibitory of intestinal motor function, but by two completely different mechanisms. A bit of understanding in ...


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E. coli is mostly harmless; only a few strains are harmful. I don't believe the route by which gut biota is established has been entirely established for any species but, for example, koala feed their faeces to their offspring to help them establish biota capable of digesting eucalyptus. It seems that a small proportion of ingested bacteria somehow survive ...


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First of all, the stomach releases the digested food continuously. Simply put, during digestion the pylorus regularly opens a bit so that small food particles (< 1-2mm) are able to leave the stomach – it's not a batch process (see also this question). However, because humans tend to ingest a lot of indigestible materials (e.g. bones), there is a need to ...


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Our stomachs are lined with a special mucal layer which protects the organ from its own secretions. People with stomach ulcers have a hole in this layer, allowing the acid to get to the skin underneath. HCl is present in our stomach to aid digestion - especially with dismantaling the bolus (food) coming from the oesophagus. The HCl separates the larger bolus ...


4

They are two different mechanisms. Opium is arguably one of the oldest herbal medicines, being used as analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal drug for thousands of years. These effects mirror the actions of the endogenous opioid system and are mediated by the principal μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. In the gut, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, β-endorphin ...


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Certain intestinal diseases have symptoms that appear concurrently in other systems of the body, but the bowel diseases themselves are not extraintestinal. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The most common manifestations involve the musculoskeletal and dermatologic ...


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This is called achalasia. According to UpToDate, the mechanism for this diseases are generally unknown. What is known, however, is that the esophagus has a neural system called the myenteric plexus and if these ganglion cells in the esophagus are damaged in any way (e.g. physically, followed by Wallerian degeneration, or the primary process of degeneration ...


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Simply, it's because of the mucous layer around the stomach, that prevents the strong acid, HCl to hurt our stomach. Not only this, if there were no mucous, the HCl would digest the protein present in the epithelial cells, so the stomach itself would get digested. So the main protagonist here is the mucous layer.


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Does the stomach need to start over after every bite? No. When the stomach digests food and some new food comes in, it just continues to digest the old and new food. The stomach releases small particles first and continues to crush large particles. In the stomach and small intestine, there are mechanoreceptors and receptors that detect gastric acid, amino ...


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I have divided this answer into a section on horse and rabbit. While there are many other hindgut fermenters, these species are good illustrations of different ways hindgut fermenters can digest and absorb nutrients from their food. Horse As you know, absorption of "nutrients" occurs along the intestines, but at varying degrees at different sites. Most ...


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First of all, diarrhea is a symptom, generally defined as passing large amount of loose stool. Diarrhea has countless causes, which include gastroenteritis and food poisoning (although not all types of gastroenteritis or food poisoning cause diarrhea). Now the other two terms. Strictly speaking gastroenteritis refers to the inflammation of stomach/...


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Virtually all nutrients from food can be absorbed into blood through the lining of small intestine and colon. What can be absorbed in the small intestine: Water Simple sugars (monosaccharides): glucose, fructose, galactose... Amino acids and small peptides (dipeptides, tripeptides) Free fatty acids, monoglycerides and cholesterol Minerals: sodium, ...


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Are you talking about Sodium Polystyrene Sulphonate (a.k.a SPS)? If yes, then ... Quoting from Chaitman, Dixit and Bridgeman (2016) Synthetic cation-exchange resins are insoluble polymers resembling a crystalline lattice. When placed in a solvent, this structure swells, allowing the exchange of ions between the reactive group on the resin (in the ...


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Unless specially coated or formulated, most pills break apart in the stomach. Note: "break apart", not necessarily absorbed. Take a gelatin capsule with rice or melatonin and immerse it in warm water. Massage gently with your fingers. Watch the clock. When the rice is fully exposed, or the melatonin starts to break apart and dissolve, add that amount of ...


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I believe in small intestine peristalsis is sometimes counted as mechanical digestion as the food is moved along the digestive tract. Chemical digestion occurs with enzymes secreted from the pancreas. https://www.smartlivingnetwork.com/digestive/b/mechanical-and-chemical-digestion/ - source


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I'd suggest reading wiki first. Autonomic nervous system, the one that regulates breathing rate, heart rate and other physiological processes as a function of circadian time, regulates secretion of gastric acid. Vagus nerve, part of parasympathetic nervous system (the one responsible for "rest and digest" part of behavior, opposite to sympathetic "fight or ...


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If I understand you correctly you would want to eat lots of wasabi and the likes to decrease/eliminate the bacterial load of H. pylori in your body. Concerning your questions - to be perfectly blunt here - The chance to develop resistance to a bacterium by temporarily eating something is close to 0. This can be explained by two factors: 1 - resistance ...


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H.pylori is a bacteria that is a cause for Peptic ulcer disease of human being. It helps to create more acidic product and causes ulcer. But human body is naturally protected to H.pylore, but excess stress,irregular life style etc helps H.pylori to growth and causes ulcer. Simple measure can escape you from this infection. 1. Intake enough water 2. Maintain ...


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There are many varieties of E. coli, with differences in their chromosomal DNA, different plasmids (independent loops of DNA that replicate autonomously inside the host cell and can be transferred between bacteria), or both. Some are harmless, some beneficial, and some deadly. E. coli of various kinds are found in the feces of cows, dogs, people, and more; ...


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