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1

You understand this wrong: All present enhancers of a gene must be bound by a enhancing factor, not all factors of a certain cell types have to be bound. So when skin cells contain activators for B, D and E they can activate gene 2 and 4 of your example, but not gene 3 since the activators for A and C are missing. So when you have a gene containing any ...


4

First, I think you have misunderstood the concept of sense/antisense. These are defined individually for each gene, with the sense strand always referring to the coding (non-template) strand of a gene, and the antisense strand to its complement, the non-coding (template) strand. So in your plasmid example above, all genes are encoded by their respective ...


2

I think the crux of the answer is only hinted at in WYSIWYG's answer. The crux of photosynthesis is partitioning coupled reactions. Photosynthesizing plant cells have sub-cellular structures called chloroplasts; their membranes are especially important for the compartmentalization of different functions and chemical processes for the entirety of ...


1

A very basic kind of photosynthesis can be realized in E.coli by expressing a rhodopsin (Kim et al., 2017). Rhodopsins are membrane proteins that can pump ions (including protons) across the membrane and generate a transmembrane potential. When coupled to ATP synthase, rhodopsins can cause ATP generation in the presence of light. In an earlier work, Hara et ...


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