This is a good opportunity to correct some major misconceptions. I'll be brief and avoid being technical because this is introductory biology.
First, genes are present on DNA, and "store instructions" on building proteins, among other things. Poor diet, lifestyle and sleeplessness do not primarily affect the DNA itself, but rather the reading of it and the ...
I can think of several possible terms for what you could mean (with my interpretation of what people in those fields do):
Computational biology (the study of biological topics using computation)
Bioinformatics (the study of biological topics using computation)
Mathematical biology (the study of biological topics using mathematics)
Sequence analysis (the ...
The polymorphism in the gene product of the human ABO locus seems
to provide an example of what the question demands. It does not
involve a gene duplication or recovery from loss of function; rather it involves changes that cause
interactions with a different ligand, and the mutations that produce
these changes have been identified and examined at a ...