8

The reason we can compare SNPs between different people is because sequencing reads are aligned to a reference genome with a fixed set of coordinates for each chromosome (local alignment), rather than aligning the entire chromosomes of two different people (global alignment). For instance, 10:3424234 refers to the 3424234th base-pair on chromosome 10 on the ...


5

I'd suggest looking at this article, which contains an intuitive model for how hybrid incompatibilities can arise between isolated sister taxa (i.e. populations). This criterion of pre-existing isolation is an important factor in most models. I think that one thing that is missing from your representation of speciation is that you are assuming that every ...


4

According to the introduction, human L1 is located at Xq28, in the q arm of the X chromosome. It is also on the mouse X chromosome. The $CHL1^{-/-}$ nomenclature you've already figured out: a homozygous knockout of the CHL1 gene. I haven't thoroughly read the whole paper, but there must be some undesirable phenotype when L1 is homozygously knocked out in ...


3

So does the bacteria then copy that portion of bacteria that it had copied in the past to put into the Cas9 protein? The DNA is not copied, but rather transcribed. The captured piece of viral DNA (called a spacer) is transcribed into a guide RNA that is incorporated into the Cas9 protein to make an active Cas9 complex.


3

It may be easier to understand this with an analogy. Think of the genome as a book, and the chromosome as a chapter in the book. If someone were copying the book by hand (as was common before the invention of the printing press), they'll make some mistakes. The vast majority will be copied correctly, but here and there they'll misspell something, and might ...


2

so it might look like: [A,C,C,C,A,T,G] and [A,C,C,C,A,A,T,G], now how can we say what corresponds to what? Do we say there is a SNP at the fifth/sixth base pair? We say the second one has an insertion at 5. Have you read the vcf format? It describes how all kinds of variants are documented. https://samtools.github.io/hts-specs/VCFv4.2.pdf What about ...


2

To answer the "plants producing antibodies" part: Yes. in 1989 scientists developed a technique to genetically alter a tobacco plant so it would produce monoclonal antibodies Researchers had to adjust the West Nile virus antibody to adapt it for production in Nicotiana benthamiana, a relative of tobacco: "We altered the genetic coding of ...


2

This isn't a complete or exclusive answer, but inversions can contribute heavily to reproductive isolation. A crossover within the region inverted in one homologous chromosome of a hybrid, but not the other, will typically mean one end of the chromosome is absent in the offspring, which is generally not a good idea. Nonetheless, within the same species it ...


2

This is a confusing topic when it comes to polyploids. I don't believe the definition for haploid provided in the accepted answer is correct for all species. Haploid refers to a cell or an organism that has only a single set of chromosomes - my interpretation is that it is only in a diploid organism such as a human that haploid means "half of the total ...


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