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How many generations are required for a specific neutral mutation to reach fixation? Kimura and Ohta (1968) showed that the expected time for a neutral allele to reach fixation is $$\bar t(p_0)=-4N\left(\frac{1-p_0}{p_0}\right)\ln(1-p_0),$$ where $p_0$ is the initial frequency and $N$ is the population size. The model assumes a Wright-Fisher population (...


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Many invertebrates possess myelin. It is a misconception that invertebrates lack myelin. The world speed record for a traveling bioelectric signal is held by the myelinated axons in the abdomen of the Penaeus shrimp! Please take a look at this website or this review to find a highly recommended comprehensive website about invertebrate myelin from about a ...


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The breadth of examples of environmental exposure directly influencing changes in gene expression in humans is astonishing, occurring at every developmental stage from conception to death. As an example, consider the environmental exposure to a reasonably high dose of a gram negative bacteria with lipopolysaccharide. Immune cells recognize this very ...


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I think your question is interesting, though the use of "expression" is misleading in context of your rabbit example. Examples of environmentally influenced gene-expression in humans? ... That is, a phenotype which requires BOTH a certain genetic background and particular environmental influences in order to be expressed? In the example you give, ...


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There are multiple definitions of complexity, ranging from algorithmic complexity to computational complexity. In biology, I'd say that algorithmic complexity (Kolmogorov complexity) is most relevant. Unfortunately, we don't yet know enough about genetic circuits and all the other things that go on at the subcellular level even to make plausible estimates ...


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