4

A conclusive proof of CoV2's artificial origin would be finding lab records or samples dated before the epidemic, or finding an obvious unique marker sequence in the cDNA. To date there is no such conclusive proof. All other "proofs" I have seen are just hypotheses, and they all can be explained by natural processes too. In fact, if your opponents refuses ...


4

I think that you are talking about trans-splicing. This does indeed happen. It is fairly common in protist organisms, though in humans it is quite rare. For more information about how this process works, including mechanisms in vertebrate organisms, see this paper. Here is one model from that last paper for how it works:


3

Homoplasy just refers to the fact that the mutation happened independently. While several sources only discuss homoplasy as a phenotypic characteristic, and in contrast to homology (and thus suggest an adaptive implication), in general, there is no assumption that the mutation gave increase in fitness (see this paper).


2

Yes, it can. A mutation can potentially occur at any given moment in the cell cycle, not only in S phase, which is why revision mechanisms remain alert during the whole cycle. Such mechanisms not only make sure every important event in the cycle takes place adequately (e.g. DNA replication, chromosome segregation) but also repair any damage associated with ...


2

Biology is a lot messier than pure math, so if you insist on the same level of perfection and rigidity in definitions you are going to be very frustrated. You are correct that DNA replication is never 100% efficient, so "genetically similar" is probably a more literally accurate description of a clone. However "genetically similar" is a very vague term, ...


2

There are technologies available for inducing higher (or lower) gene expression in cultured mammalian/human cells as well as in bacteria. The state of the art is CRISPR-mediated gene activation/repression, where you fuse a transcription activation domain to a Cas gene in a CRISPR-Cas system (usually Cas9), and provide a guide RNA to target genes of interest. ...


1

Every parent passes half their DNA onto their kids. There is a not infinite, but very high, amount of DNA. This means for the first generation it is precisely true: if Mom has 100% red genes and Dad has 100% green genes, child will have 50% green and 50% red genes. For the second generation, for people with mixed genes, it becomes true only on average. So if ...


1

In mammals, Y chromosome determines the sex. SRY gene present on Y chromosome is responsible for sex determination. And, in absence of this gene results in female sex. Non-human mammals use several genes on the Y chromosome. Platypus and Drosophila also uses XY sex determination system, but in different way. Like in platypus, combination of genes present ...


1

The use of the word cognate in molecular biology reflects adjectival definition 2 from Lexico: 2 formal Related; connected. ‘cognate subjects such as physics and chemistry’ The example given shows that this can be used in the most general sense of related, so that there is no requirement for some common antecedent as a surrogate for a human mother or ...


1

The description of the second mutation depends on the nature of its relationship to the first mutation. If the first mutation reduces fitness of the organism, and the second mutation tempers the fitness reduction, then the second mutation would be compensatory. Compensatory mutations are common in bacteria that acquire antibiotic resistance. Consider a ...


1

In genetics, a SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymporphism) is the substitution of a nucleotide with a different one. A SNP can have phenotypic effects or not. A mutation, in genetics, is any kind of inherited change in DNA. Mutation types are: SNPs, indels, structural variants, translocations and so on. Sometimes researchers (especially in the field of medical ...


1

A sequence is executed with transcriptase. To double amount of signaling or some protein production try doubling the sequence occurrence.


1

If you are after large amounts of a particular protein, search "recombinant protein production". It is a huge field.


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