I'm going to strictly answer the questions, rather than step through the proof, because it involves a lot of formatting that I'm not familiar with. Other folks are welcome to edit this!
This equation assumes a diploid genotype, given by the $2n$ power with $n$ individuals. For anything with greater ploidy than mono-, it's mathematically simpler ...
What is Protein Expression Level?
This was the original title of the post, which I edited myself because I regard the answer as trivial, but the question as more substantial. To deal with the trivial first:
‘Level’ is not a scientific unit, and can only be used unambiguously
as a scientific term in its English sense in relation to liquids, e.g. “The level ...
In this context, that symbol is read as "prime".
"...a typical 5’—3’ order of appearance..."
would be read
"...a typical 5-prime to 3-prime order of appearance..."
In organic-chemistry, these values are used as a systematic means to denote different Carbon atoms that are part of the same compound. DNA and RNA consist of a ...
I assume you are referring to the "typical 5’—3’ order of appearance".
The correct way to pronounce these is with the word "prime", that is, "Five prime to three prime". These are not units but refer to the directionality of RNA/DNA and the numbers five and three refer to specific carbon atoms arranged in the sugar molecules ...
Addressing Your First Question
We can tell whether an allele is dominant or recessive based on patterns in family trees, that is true, and it is very helpful! However, that is not the only way, since by looking at the molecular function of the alleles, the dominant and recessive relationship between alleles can be assessed without needing to look at family ...
This combines two important findings to which Morgan's lab contributed.
Genes on the chromosome: They could show that mutated phenotypes were linked to the physical entity of chromosomes.
Arranged linearly: They could show that there are distances between different phenotypes correlated to a specific linear arrangement. These distances correspond to the ...
The definition as set by Kenneth Lange's book is indeed quite vague and thus unrigorous. It is a probability not conditioned on observing an allele $a$ at a locus of $i$ but conditioned on the following where we focus on one particular locus. It is rigorously defined as follows. Then we will give the correct formulation of the correct recursive equation akin ...
SNPs do not signify anything about the functionality of a particular piece of DNA. You can think of a SNP as just a sign that says "hey, something in my neighborhood might be interesting!!" In this respect many GWAS SNPs are so-called "tag SNPs", that have been selected specifically to give the minimal number of SNPs that can be linked to ...
There are, of course, many different deoxyribonucleases (DNase), but the question has other implicit problems. It assumes that there was a single event that resulted in the realization of the existence of a new enzymatic activity. As the Introduction to this paper by M. McCarty on the purification of one such enzyme in the Journal of General Physiology in ...
Seems like they are the same. I found the below by using the search terms of "genbank oct3"
I see the names and splicing variations at:
"Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology"
and also see a statement calling it oct3/4
The best review I can find is the one by Wang and Dai 2010, conveniently titled starting with "Concise review".
From the beginning of the abstract:
The human OCT4 gene can generate at least three transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1) and four protein isoforms (OCT4A, OCT4B‐190, OCT4B‐265, and OCT4B‐164) by alternative splicing and alternative ...
I'm assuming this question is primarily interested in heritable mutations, given the evolutionary nature of the link you shared. Only mutations in germ cells are heritable, so it will vary between males and females.
Female germ cells are formed in utero. Oogenesis in humans and is pretty much finished by 20 weeks gestational age (there's some debate about ...
Has interest in haplotype blocks waned over the decade?
You can set a time range on Google Scholar, which the screenshot shows was not done. I did that and:
A search for ‘haplotype block’ from 2000 to 2009 gives 22,000 hits.
A search for ‘haplotype block’ from 2000 to 2009 gives 25,700 hits.
(The term haploblock is now often used as an abbreviation, ...
| b+/c+ | b/c | b+/c | b/c+
Ada | ~0.39 | ~0.42 | ~0.08 | ~0.1
Donald | ~0.09 | ~0.09 | ~0.4 | ~0.41
The other chromosome beeing b/c (I assume each one got an heterozygote fly and than they did a testcross)
There are a two possibilities for an heterozygote fly:
(b+/c+, b/c), (b+/c, b/c+)
If there was no genetic linkage we would except 0.25 for each ...