... I was reading the article about Genome Sequencing of a Genetically Tractable Pyrococcus furiosus Strain Reveals a Highly Dynamic Genome in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus reference genome sequence ... with the sequence of a variant in a lab strain population, designated COM1 and that is the genetically tractable strain which has undergone ...
If we look at web resources, what we will notice is that this ratio is not deployed at the family level but at the population level.
In other words, when we look at a population, we can ask:
What proportion of these people have the disease?
That is the denominator.
Taking that group of people, we can then ask:
Of those people that have the disease, what ...
I think that what you are interested in is the original Johannsen definition of the gene as of 1909 (I translated this article, caveat emptor). Notably, Johannsen cautioned explicitly against reading too much into the abstraction of the gene, and instead insisted on reference to heritable phenomena that we would call traits or phenotypic characters, with the ...
The Cambridge Dictionary, CDC, and the NIH's institudes researching the human genome and cancer all agree that genes have 2 properties:
they are associated with heredity
they are a section of DNA translated into proteins
However, the Oxford Dictionary has an informal definition and formal definition. The informal definition refers to only to the first ...
Sadly the site you referenced is not scientific. There is no scientific basis for a claim that "there is a 7% chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a green-eyed child". It is correct that multiple genes determine eye color, and the effects of some depend on the versions (alleles) of the other genes present, so predicting eye color is not as ...
To my knowledge, Chomsky does not claim that there is a specific gene or mutation responsible for the human linguistic abilities - at least not in strictly biological sense. The claims of Chomsky and his followers, known as generative grammar, are more general: the study and the comparison of many human languages have shown that all the languages are ...
(moved from comments)
We don't know from the pictured cross that the genes are linked. However, IF they are linked, we know from that cross which alleles are together on a single chromosome.
Thus, the description should have something like
", if indeed they are linked."
added to the end of
"this cross gives us exactly what we need to observe ...
Your headline question:
How can we know which alleles are together on a chromosome?
is not quite the same as the question at the bottom of the body of your post:
how we can get any information as to whether genes are on the same chromosome or not from this crossing
These questions are different in two ways that matter: (1) the second question is asking ...
Here's a hint: you're right about 0.01 being the recombinant (crossed-over) double homozygous recessive offspring. I think you're forgetting that each offspring contains 2 gamete haplotypes, and so predicting the percent of offspring with a given genotype involves multiplying the frequencies of the individual gametes that produce that offspring. To calculate ...
It sounds like your guess was right and the exception is the lagging strand. The statement is phrased poorly, but it seems like they were going for the lagging strand. Either they meant for you to think that
-the lagging strand is growing 3' to 5'
or, more likely,
-the polymerase is only synthesizing on one (leading) strand at a time
While technically the ...
In addition to the above answers, one needs to first understand the difference/relationship between a Gene and the genetic code. The genetic code is written in triplets (3 nucleotides) and one triplet of nucleotides codes for one amino acid (a.a) except the Stop "triplets" or codons(UAA, UAG, UGA in nuclear DNA)
Now since one protein/polypeptide is ...
7/16 for any child to be blood group O, half of that (21.875%) for a son with blood type O.
P x M
HA = 0/4 blood type O
HO = 2/4 blood type O (HO-HO, HO-hO)
hA = 2/4 blood type O (hA-hB, hA-hO)
hO = 3/4 blood type O (hO-HO, hO-hB,hO-ho)
= 7/16 chance of type O
son = 1/2
Chance of blood group O = 7/16 * 1/2 = 7/32 = ~0....
The genes are defined by a reference genome - one that is considered the standard for comparison to. This reference is defined by which build of the genome you are comparing to, so there are different builds based off different assemblies of information. These are updated as new, more complete sequencing of the genomes (e.g. low complexity areas etc) are ...