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To paraphrase an old saying, gene changes should be weighed not counted. There are a plethora of types of gene changes, and they vary by orders of magnitude in their impact. In particular, which genes are affected has a huge impact. Some point mutations (change in a single or a few nucleotides) can be lethal. On the other hand there are trisomies where an ...


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You need to define “gene” for your question to make sense. In humans, each individual has roughly 100 novel mutations (that neither parent had) (Human mutation rate revealed). However, those are not necessarily “new genes”, since many occur in non-functional DNA, even those that occur in functional regions may not alter any function, and even those that ...


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According to genetics all phenotypical characters are inherited from both biological parents. The Y chromosome is mainly responsible for appearance of male characters and the only source of getting Y chromosome is from biological father. However other traits i.e. of height can be inherited from either biological father or mother. Therefore if the height of ...


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It's obvious that nobody has found a point from biology to legally, spiritually, etc., answer the question "what constitutes a human" in a way that everybody accepts. Let's alter your question a little (& actually a lot) to make clear how living things are defined in biology. Let's take walnut as an example. Walnut is a species. And species is a ...


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Unfortunately despite the impression given by the many poor explanations available (including the one you quoted), homologous is not a synonym for similar. Homology is defined as the existence of shared ancestry1,2. Thus, structures being homologous simply means they had a common ancestor — i.e. homology is a relationship not a property of an individual ...


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DNA is a large molecule which is particular interest relies in the succession of nucleotide that composes it. The genetic information is contained in the succession of nucleotides (I will ignore epigenetics here for simplicity). A given position of any length on the DNA molecule is called a locus. A gene is typically defined as a protein coding sequence. ...


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There are about 20,000 genes in the human genome. Here are the first 5 genes (following alphabetical order) on chromosome 1: AADACL3: Arylacetamide deacetylase-like 3 AADACL4: Arylacetamide deacetylase-like 4 ACADM: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain ACTL8: Actin-like 8 ADGRL2 (1p31.1): adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L2


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23andme uses DNA microarrays ("chips") to perform genotyping. These methods only assay a set of previously known single nucleotide variants, so the probability of missing some specific variant (false negative) is high if that variant is not specifically assayed. It is not quite 100% as frequently known variants missing from the chip are closely associated ...


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Some genetic changes occur too fast for selection to take place. Can you please define "genetic change"? Selection can only change the frequency of alleles in a population. It cannot make a new mutation. If by, "genetic change", you mean "mutation", then selection just can't do it. If by "genetic change", you mean change in allele frequency, then the change ...


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IanC's answer is great, but is missing one and possibly the most important point. There is a distinction between being alive or having life, and "life" in the sense that we associate with words like individual, personhood, being. In the first sense; the biological sense, a zygote is most definitely alive; a living thing; a lifeform etc. But in the second ...


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The discussion of when a life starts is a little more complicated than that. Many views and disagreements between them fuel the discussions of pro-life/abortion groups. Some of the views and what they consider the beginning of life: Metabolic view: Considers that there's no singular developmental moment that marks the beginning of life. Any single or ...


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This competitive relationship often goes by the simple and intuitive name of sibling rivalry, and its closely related idea of parent-offspring conflict. While it may seem counter-intuitive for evolution, you must remember that while it's better for the parents to have multiple surviving chicks, it's better for the chick to have less siblings to compete with ...


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