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3

Dinosaurs did not have a neocortex - but many of them might have had something neocortex-like. The neocortex does, in fact, appear to be a uniquely mammalian brain structure. However, birds are dinosaurs, and although birds do not have a neocortex they do have complex brain structures that appear to be fairly similar in function. The neocortex and analogous ...


2

As I have already mentioned in the comments, the mutation rates are indeed different, at least in some viruses. As an example we can take HIV, where pol, gag, and other genes essential for viral replication and interference with the cellular machinery are singificantly more conserved than the env gene, coding for the viral envelope. Mutations vs. ...


3

The answer is that drugs and vaccines do different things. Drugs treat the problem (sometimes before it starts - this is known as a prophylactic), whereas vaccines are intended to prevent the problem from starting in the first place, so vaccines are a form of prophylactic themselves. One of the problem with drugs is that the vast majority of them have some ...


-1

Friend..you got the meaning of co dominance and incomplete dominance correct... but let me make co dominance easy... its just like mixing colors on a color plate...think it just like that.... otherwise in real sense both colors are indivisually expressed but being expressed in equal amount and with uniformity they appear as pink... other example could be ABO ...


4

Unfortunately, that nomenclature is kind of old-fashioned; it predates our understanding of what's going on at a molecular level. Don't get hung up on the language. Lots and lots of genes and alleles just don't fit into the paradigm of dominant and recessive, and trying to force them to fit doesn't really work. In the case of flowers, if you have two ...


0

Re: I have read online that a recessive mutation is one in which both alleles must be mutant in order for the mutant phenotype of be observed. Perhaps it's better to think of it as "all" rather than "both", as sometimes there are 3 or more alleles, and sometimes only one. When the authors write does not unmask a recessive mutation in ...


1

You're reading too much into the authors statement. The authors simply claim they have no evidence for any mutations in the working copies of the genes, and therefore not even preliminary evidence for a recessive mutation. You're right that if they had found mutations in either gene, this wouldn't be sufficient evidence to conclude the translocation unmasks ...


2

The UCSC genome browser is good for genome visualization. Searching for HBB, for example, gives the follow data by default: You can also search by band and get a list of genes.


6

Sex-linkage would be the canonical example. In other words, people with phenotypically male or female sex characteristics have non-random genetic predilections towards specific X-linked traits such as hemophilia, color-blindness, Duchenne dystrophy, etc. However, other classic examples would include linkage between blood group antigens and peptic ulcers. For ...


1

If I understand your question correctly, you want to know if gene copy number can have an indirect effect on transcription, i.e. an effect that does not arise from the dosage effects of the copied sequence or the direct disruption of proximal genes? I think the answer is yes, insomuch that CNVs can change chromatin architecture. In many eukaryotes, the ...


1

With the help of the list by @reuns, I was able to hunt down some of the mutations in terms of amino acids: AT.1 has S:ins679GIAL S:N679K (found in a report from Public Health England) A.2.5 has S:ins214AAG (usually, the insert can have another point mutation to S:ins214ASG, and it can occur reduplicated as S:ins214AAGAAG B.1.214.2 has S:ins214TDR (found in ...


2

That's because handling insertions is a bit harder than point mutations and deletions. With covizu I get this, unfortunately it doesn't tell us the insert and the translation. Hope someone can give a more comprehensive answer B.1.36.20 ['ins:29594:2'] B.1.1.373 ['ins:28251:3'] A.2.5 ['ins:22206:9'] B.1.214.2 ['ins:22205:9'] P.1 ['ins:...


2

What is a gene? The term gene was coined in 1909 “to describe the Mendelian unit of heredity”, long before it was suggested and established that these units resided in the chromosomal DNA of organisms. I would suggest that this definition is as good as any that followed the latter discovery. Thus, modern general dictionary definitions such as the one below ...


2

I think that this question cannot be quantitatively answered, because the baseline "non-disease" state is not well defined. Let's take as a starting point the example that you gave, of sickle cell disease. It turns out there is not actually a single mutation that can lead to the disease, but a number of different mutations. A person with only one ...


0

In Campbell Biology (2021) 12th edition it says that "True-breeding" (or pure lines) can be verified over many generations of self-pollination. If they produce only the same variety as the parent plant, then they are homozygous.


1

Some papers that should help and provide further info in their refs: An oldy but goody: "Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results" (1995) Eric Lander & Leonid Kruglyak Here's a discussion of techniques involved, with an emphasis on linkage analysis but discussing association studies as well:...


0

I don't think that it is necessary to upload to a specialist or targeted repository if none are obvious. For some data types there is an obvious repository such as dbSNP. It does not sound like such exists. Probably things have changed since the question was posted, but nonetheless I think that this is a useful question to have answered. There are a variety ...


2

General remark One does not necessarily need to use a subtle statistical method, but one does need good understanding of the experimental design and statistical analysis in order to draw reliable conclusions from the data (or know when not to draw such conclusions). It is for a good reason that statistics is a field of its own (just like biology) and there ...


3

It's purely and simply that there is no single answer - as in the linked paper, there's no "gay gene", there is a group of identified genes that contribute, but not all the variance in the population seen can be attributed to those genes. i.e. you can have some or none of those genes and still be gay, or indeed all the genes and not be gay. This ...


2

Hybrid corn IS a "Mendelian selection scheme". The issue here is more predictability and uniformity of crop growth and yield. Normally, plants are genetically varied and having different versions of each gene from mother and father usually increases the fitness of the plant (this is sometimes called "hybrid vigor"). When farmers replant ...


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