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2

Not all can be produced. Getting the correct glycosylation on proteins hasn't been systematically worked out. For example, to make human-compatible antibodies. Many of the proteins are modified by multiple enzymes after production - this could require massive amounts of research to replicate. Some biological products are just unknown mixtures.


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In principle, any biological product should be able to be developed through microbial synthesis, with the appropriate choice of chassis. Indeed, this was the goal of the DARPA "1000 Molecules" program, which did indeed demonstrate it was possible to rapidly engineer new pathways for production of new biomolecules. In practice, however, some ...


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As mentioned above the inbreeding required to select smaller and smaller dogs would be problematic because of the myriad of health problems that would be associated with it. The question about physiological limitations is interesting. The main reason biological organisms often don't scale is the fact that length, area, and volume don't scale in the same way. ...


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Nothing is 100% precise - any measurement or process allow for some error, the only difference is how often such errors occur (i.e., the probability of an error). These wildely range in biology - e.g., it is about 1 per $10^4$ in HIV replication, but only 1 per $10^9$ for human DNA (due to the repair mechanisms). Note that $1$ in $10^9$ for human DNA means ...


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Let's start off by saying that "baldness" is a very broad term... it includes not only hair loss but also miniaturization, which accounts for the majority of the phenotypic "baldness" associated with alopecia areata. While alopecia areata is not the only cause of baldness, it accounts for 4 out of 5 cases in men, whereas in women it only ...


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Mortality. The reason the most common examples of haemophilia in history occur among nobles is not because the nobles were a particularly sickly bunch of people. It is because they lived sufficiently pampered lives to actually become adults, and reproduce their haemophilia. In the same era, a commoner or even a rich merchant family would not be very likely ...


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I think what they mean is that those affected with haemophilia rarely survive to the adult life. This is less of a constraint for women, since a woman carrying only one recessive gene will not be affected by this disorder.


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Readthrough has already been used to implement transcriptional NOR gates, wherein tandem input promoters express a repressor that represses an output promoter. (First time I recall here: 21150903, used widely here: 27034378, roadblocking modeled here: 32141239.) An advantage of this design is that the repressor need only be encoded in DNA once, which can ...


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If you're synthesizing the insert then you just design it with restriction sites that are compatible to the vector. Otherwise, you can design PCR primers that have restriction sites in them. That way when you amplify your insert you'll attach the restriction sites to it. EMBL, Addgene, and NEB all offer somewhat more detailed explanations of this on their ...


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I think this is an interesting proposal to try to turn a problem into a benefit. What you are considering is conceptually similar to the organization of an operon, in which multiple genes are controlled by a single promoter, with multiple ribosome binding site (RBS) entry points for translation, and read-through can certainly occur in these cases too. ...


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In principle, you can reconstruct 1/2 the genome of each parent. Each of these halves is still a "complete" genome, in the sense that it (usually) contains 23 full chromosomes (there are 23 human chromosomes). Every person has two copies of their genome, one of which is inherited from each parent. I strongly recommend reading about meiosis to learn ...


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Yes, in neutral theory of evolution this is called fixation - when all the alleles (for a given locus) become identical. Note that it may happen, even if the gene does not have a striong selective advantage - due to the random effects. If you are looking for the basic background in population genetics, Gellespie's book is a good starting point.


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