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In a comment I ask you for specific passages that give you this impression (since when I read The Red Queen I came away with the opposite impression). You provided the following quote. in my 2003 copy published by Harper Perennial, at page 31: "[The coelacanth] has stayed the same - a design that persists without innovation, like a Volkswagen beetle. ...


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I think you are making this too complicated. You don't have enough data from this diagram to make any sort of rigorous statistical judgement. You are just looking for clues. Note that in the first generation offspring of the affected male founder, all the female offspring are affected and none of the male offspring are affected. This is exactly the pattern ...


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Good question--I think the first point to address is "a means to an end" seems to imply willful action. That is, evolution (according to Ridley) would be a conscious effort by a species to optimize the gene pool for survival of future generations; a rationalization for each species to mutate and diverge. This is not the case, for a couple of reasons. First, ...


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As long as the enviroment doesn't change the species could reach an "optimum state" , thats why some species like cocodriles or horsehoe crab are considered as "living fossils".


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A quick search gives this same question in this Reddit post. Apparently, there is not yet an existing example of such dominance of three alleles on one another. However, the side-blotched lizard has three genetically encoded male "sexes", that also determines their behaviour. At a population level, the three sexes follow a rock-paper-scissor model of ...


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From "Gene Interactions: Allelic and Non-Allelic" (biologydiscussion.com) 'Non-allelic or inter-allelic interactions … occur where the development of single character is due to two or more genes affecting the expression of each other in various ways.' 'Two non-allelic gene pairs affect the same character. The dominant allele of each of the two factors ...


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This NCERT question though... I guess they want us to take into account the phenomenon of linkage. If we do so, then genes on the same chromosome are not independent, but if they lie afar or lie on different chromosomes, then they can be said to be independent. Chromosomes have nothing as such and are always independent. Thus column A represents genes and ...


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Hmm, very cryptical formulations! I decided that B represents the chromosome because of "one pair" vs "independent pairs": All chromosomes are independent but many genes lie on the same chromosome and are therefore not independent, ignoring crossing-over for now. It holds as well for the second statement, since it's the chromosomes that segregate, taking ...


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Dahlia cultivars are known to undergo somatic mutations, e.g. mutations that occur during growth that can lead to different flowers. See for example this old paper. So it would be very possible that your bulbs yield somatic mutations that crop up as you regrow them each year. This could be the case even if your bulb has not undergone the mutation, because ...


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This can be a result of a somatic mutation, especially if the other flowers on the same plant don't have the same color pattern. Somatic mutations are not inherited for parent organisms but occur spontaneously in one of the cells in the body. If that cell then proliferates all of its descendants will have the mutation and new phenotype associated with it. ...


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Short answer: You need to buy some more, but you need the sequence also for ordering. Long answer: The Taq polymerase needs a piece of DNA (or RNA) to prime the reaction and be able to enlarge the DNA chain, this is why we use primers in the first place (also to ensure reaction specificity to the region we want to amplify). To enable the reaction you would ...


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