9

That is a papaya seed showing vivipary, or premature sprouting. The plant is getting all the sugar it needs from the nutrients stored in the seed so it does not photosynthesize. If it were to run out, the plant would die.


6

I'd argue that this relates to species-specific strategies of seed dispersal, so the answer depends on which species you're asking about. Here's an answer for chili peppers, which I think illustrates how complex and idiosyncratic these strategies can be. As I mentioned in this answer, the seedsavers' manual Seed to Seed has great info on most plants, ...


2

You'd have to know the individual germination times for each family. I'm linking a table for vegetables, but it doesn't include the three plants you're looking at. A google search for each one individually shows that yes Mung does have the shortest germination time. It's a memorization question. To add to that here is a paper where they review variation ...


2

It turns out that your research question about halophytes has been asked many times before. You should learn from your predecessors... Seed germination in halophytes displays a high degree of inter- and intra-specific variability. However, Khan & Gul (2006) report that germination patterns respond to a number of environmental factors (including ...


1

It sounds like your first issue is with seed germination. I am assuming you are doing a seed sterilization. You may want to try allowing them to imbibe water for about an hour after the sterilization process, and then wrapping them with aluminum foil and placing them in a fridge for a day or two. I've done this with Medicago, which is another legume. However,...


1

Seeds are generally made in order to stand dry/cold conditions. I don't see any reason to believe that the DNA got damaged during freezing (that could cause mutation and phenotypic changes). So, if they have germinated, the plants should not be any different from the controls.


1

The seedless grape technically has a seed, but the seed has no hard outer shell and is microscopic/invisible. These seeds aren't viable. Technically you could isolate out the seed tissue from the grape and grow it in specialized germination medium, but that process also works for any other part of the grape plant. Hooray cuttings! Certainly the seedless ...


1

Here's a partial answer, based more on common-sense then in-depth knowledge: Physiological. One reason light is not required immediately is that many seeds are in essence bundles of stored energy (as carbohydrates, I suppose). This is what makes them attractive food for birds, squirrels, humans, etc. When they're able to escape that predation, the growing ...


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