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32

My (limited) understanding is that it is quite hard to avoid killing some bacteria even with very gentle physical manipulation. On the other hand, it is quite hard to use physical force to achieve reasonable level of sterilization. Let's bring some examples with a few (hastily found) references. Pressure My guess is that most examples the OP mentions (hit ...


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There are plenty of physical or mechanical methods of killing bacteria, but most are used in conjunction with other agents and probably don't qualify as "blunt force trauma". For example, beer distributers might snake a brush through a keg line to disrupt any bacterial biofilms before flushing them out with disinfectant. Similar logic applies to ...


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From a biochemical point of view, it is surprisingly difficult to break open a bacterial cell. A molecular biologist, for example, might want to break E.coli cells expressing a protein of interest, in order to purify the protien Some of the methods employed are agitation with glass beads, griding with glass beads, sonication, and high-pressure cell ...


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Yes of course. While you can't swing a blunt object comparable in size to humans at something many orders of magnitude smaller to kill it. You can use something like an ultra sonicator, which swings a small blunt object at --you guessed it-- very high speeds to generate lots of shear forces in a liquid culture. Usually these instruments are not meant for ...


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Most deleterious mutations are partial or complete loss-of-function (LOF) mutations; most of those can be functionally compensated for by the presence of a wild-type (normal) copy on the other chromosome and so are recessive. Genes on the non-pseudoautosomal parts of X or Y are effectively hemizygous in males and thus LOF mutations there will likely be ...


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The "Risk" is the single basepair sequence (A, C, G, or T) at the precise chromosome:position location in the column to the left of it. "Alt" is the basepair present in the other allele. The complementary nucleotide is still present on the other strand, but its identity is obvious and the decision of which strand's sequence to list was ...


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...cut with a knife... Yes, freeze them.... slowly. <evil laugh> Freezing causes ice crystals to form inside the cells. These act like little knives. The slower the freezing happens, the larger these ice crystals get. The larger the ice crystals, the more damage they will do by piercing the cell wall and other important membranes. This is why if you ...


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Dental damage is mainly caused by the demineralization of the tooth enamel. Demineralization can happen due to a low pH caused either by acidic food/drinks like fruits or carbonated beverages or by bacteria producing acid while breaking down sugars. Measurements (1, 2) have shown that food intake changes the pH (increasing or decreasing, depending on the ...


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