53

Those are isolated turtle bones: Specifically, they are part of the carapace, or upper shell. The projections would articulate with the backbone. The "toothlike" structure at the other end projects down toward the margin of the shell. Based on the size, and the fact that you are in Missouri, I'm guessing they are snapping turtle bones. Here's a photo of ...


48

Birds are both flying dinosaurs and flying reptiles. Yes, that's potentially confusing. To understand the apparent contradiction, you have to understand how modern classification of organisms works (phylogenetic systematics). Under the old (Linnean) classification system, Reptilia (reptiles) was an order and Aves (birds) was a separate order. Phylogenetic ...


24

In addition to kmm's excellent answer, I'd like to present the xkcd point of view. By any reasonable definition, T. Rex is more closely related to sparrows than to Stegosaurus. Separation by time Phylogenetic distance Physical similarity Birds aren't descended from dinosaurs, they are dinosaurs. Which means the fastest animal ...


14

Ashok's Bronzeback (Dendrelaphis ashoki). This is a relatively small snake (typically 70 cm in length) that feeds on lizards, frogs and small rodents. More information can be found here or here. It's range is Southwestern India: You can differentiate this species from closely related D. girii based on it having a longer "postocular" black line than D. ...


10

It looks like an Eastern Hognose Snake, which is characterized by an upturned nose and high likelihood of playing dead. These are described as variable in coloration: "Two color phases are common in Virginia: (1) a patterned phase (79.6%, n = 98), characterized by a series of 19-27 (average = 23.2 ± 2.4, n = 12) black or dark-brown blotches along ...


8

I'm not an expert, but I think that you have to be specific about the flying animals to which you are referring. Pterosaurs are not classed as dinosaurs, whereas modern birds are descended from theropod dinosaurs which is where feathers appeared.


8

The chlorine concentration in pools is +- 0,5 mg/L. + 0.002 mg/L will fatally damage the sensitive skin on tadpoles, frogs, salamanders and other amphibians. another source: Free chlorine (Cl2) is a greenish gas that is well known for its highly toxic properties as can be attested to by the thousands of soldiers that died and were severely ...


7

An answer is found at the Wikipedia page for Taipan: The common name, taipan, was coined by anthropologist Donald Thomson after the word used by the Wik-Mungkan Aboriginal people of central Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia. This passage is citing Sutton. 1995. Wik Ngathan Dictionary as support. I cannot evaluate the truth in this statement ...


7

Asides from flight-capable modern birds and their early ancestors1, there are several other therapod dinosaurs which palaeontologists suspect were capable of flight, "but in a manner substantially different from that of modern birds": Dromaeosaurids Microraptor Scapular orientation in theropods and basal birds, and the origin of flapping flight, Acta ...


7

Answer is quite simple as from @Alan Boyd link. They are cold blooded and thus, can go out for hunt in cold, they need to stay put till they get some prey. So, it mainly depend on the temperature of the outside, I found this interesting paper on relation of body sizes and latitude. Body sizes of poikilotherm vertebrates at different latitudes ...


7

This lizard is likely a Roughtail Rock Agama (Stellagama stellio or Laudakia stellio). They are colloquially referred to as hardon (or hardun) lizards. According to Wikipedia: Like many agamids, stellions can change color to express their moods. They bask on stone walls, rocks, and trees. They are usually found in rocky habitats, and are quite shy, ...


6

Source of information See the post The best free and most up to date phylogenetic tree on the internet? for info about how to find such information. Generally speaking, you might be interested in an intro to phylogenetics such as the one provided in this answer for example. Where are dinosaurs in the tree of life? Dinosaurs fall within the Reptiliomorpha ...


6

Definitely looks like some species of rat snake (genus Pantherophis). Based on the size, location and coloration, I'd say it's a dark variant of a Gray rat snake (Pantherophis spiloides). It might also be a cross between a black and grey rat snake (i.e., Pantherophis spiloides x obsoletus). Source: Todd Pierson Sources: Alan Brumbeloe | Bill ...


5

It's hard to answer your question directly. But one might start by noting that pythons are hardly alone - snakes in general have evolved the ability to swallow prey that is much larger than themselves. It's probably not unusual for opportunistic carnivores to stumble across gorged snakes and make a meal out of them. But there's a flip side: Consider an ...


4

Good question. To understand it perfectly, you'll need a good reference to a text on detailed explanation of sound conduction by the ear ossicles in reptiles and humans. I couldn't find anything better than these here and here. But these are partly inadequate in addressing your questions and are a bit involved in the physics used. But, if we leave the ...


4

This is not a yes / no question. Many tortoise eat plants (veggies and fruits) while some turtles eat fish too. Snakes are basically predators and do not dwell on plants neither do most of the lizards. I think if a reptile is capable of digesting plant food in general, then it should be able to digest preprocessed grains as well. Edit: As for whole intact ...


4

In warm-blooded animals, our high metabolisms are a significant disadvantage when being decapitated. Just a few minutes without oxygen and a mammal's brain is caput—the result of a massive cascading cellular die-off. Not so with cold-blooded reptiles. Their slow metabolism sustains their internal organs for far longer than a mammals causing them to ...


4

I'm not an expert by any means, and anyone with proper training could probably provide a more informed opinion, but here's my thoughts. The patterning looks similar to Oligodon taeniolatus, an small, nonvenomous snake found throughout the region: I'm not entirely sure about this identification, mostly because the pattern on the head looks a bit different. ...


4

Great find! I'm pretty certain that is actually a Prairie Kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster - likely the subspecies L. c. calligaster). The biggest indicator to me are the two alternating rows of dark spots on sides, with some blotches fusing. They are distributed all over Missouri, although pretty rarely seen due to their microhabitat: They tend to ...


4

Short explanation According to the papers I could find, Dendrelaphis ashoki and D. girii aren't as closely related as you suggest: D. ashoki appears to be closely related to D. pictus, a Southeast Asian snake species, while D. girii appears to be closely related to D. bifrenalis, a Sri Lankan/South Indian snake species. They were distinguished from their ...


4

The short answer is crocodiles may be secondarily cold blooded, but the long answer is warm blooded and cold blooded is not a binary condition but a spectrum. It has to do with how much heat you generate with your own tissue as all organisms generate some heat and gain some from the environment when they can. on one end you have extreme ectotherms (some ...


4

This looks like a Common Garden Skink (Lampropholis guichenoti) Further information can be found here and here The description is a quote from the first source: The colour of the skin of a common garden skink is mostly a brown-grey colour, and it usually has a black or dark coloured stripe down either side of its body and a copper coloured head. The ...


4

This looks very much like a tree frog of which there are many similar looking species. Without knowing where your flowers came from or more characteristics about the specimen, it'll be difficult to provide an accurate answer*. One possibility may be the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). According to Wikipedia: Members of the H. arborea species complex ...


4

By the picture and the official distribution it looks to be as you said a Lacerta viridis. Some references and distribution here: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/61530/12507156 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lacerta_viridis http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Lacerta&species=viridis In Western Europe we have a brother specie ...


3

Just to add another option: My guess (though no more confident than @p.s.w.g's answer) is Balanophis ceylonensis (Sri Lankan Keelback) or related species. The two features that stand out to me from your photo are the dotted markings on the back of the snake, and the dark line running behind the snake's eye. You'll notice the keelback in this picture ...


3

This indeed looks like a species of "Pacman Frog." Specifically, this specimen most resembles the terrestrial Ceratophrys cranwelli (Cranwell's horned frog or Chacoan horned frog). © 2014 James H. Harding Facts: 8-13 cm long; can weigh up to 0.5 kg. Origin: endemic to dry Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil. Cranwell's are ...


3

It looks to me like it's a Pacman frog or Ornate Horned frog, a common pet frog. The specific species, by googling pet websites, my guess is Ceratophrys Cranwelli (common name Brown Pacman frog).


3

It is a torrent salamander. Most likely this is the southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus)


3

If you're referring to keeping geckos as pets, like all reptiles, amphibians and birds, they come with a small but finite risk of contracting salmonellosis. Having said this, the infection is easy to avoid if you maintain basic hygiene. On a personal note, I know dozens (perhaps hundreds) of people who keep or have kept reptiles as pets and have yet to ...


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