8

Perhaps what your teacher meant was not so much a difference in Leydig cell morphology, but in interstitial tissue morphology, ie. tissue which occupies the space in between seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells are its most interesting component, others being small blood vessels (a lot of them), nerves and connective tissue (mostly fibroblasts, mastocytes, ...


6

The endothelial cells in small blood vessels take in more glucose (as glucose levels in blood are high due to diabetes.) Thus they form surface glycoproteins which causes the basement membrane to become thicker yet less strong. This leads to blood and protein leakage from the blood stream in other tissues in the space between cells. Blood leakage alters ...


6

Cells of the endothelium are joined by tight cell junctions which are impermeable or selectively permeable. Generally, proteins can only migrate through the endothelium via active transcytosis. Leukocytes (specifically neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) express various adhesion molecules and cytokine receptors which allow them to interact with ...


6

No, the terms multinucleate and syncytium are not synonymous in this context. Most cardiomyocytes are not multinuclear. To be clear, syncytium is used to refer to multinuclear cells that originate from fusion of uninuclear cells, including the skeletal muscle, but that isn't what is referred to in the context of cardiac muscle. The Wikipedia page on ...


6

Alveolar tree is like a bunch of grapes. If you put a bunch of grapes into a plastic bag and put this bag into another bag, you can imagine how the lungs are covered. Alveoli form the surface of the lungs. There is a membrane called visceral (or pulmonary) pleura that covers the alveoli and this membrane continues into another sheet called parietal (or ...


5

Without answering the problem for you, because you have not shown work yet to try to figure out which is which, let me tell you that you have three options. Skeletal Muscle- striated, peripherally located nuclei, same thickness along length, non-branching Cardiac Muscle- striated, few centrally located nuclei, branches and anastamosis Smooth Muscle- non-...


5

I'm not really sure, but it seems like a cross section of intestinal villi / intestinal glands from the large intestine. Here are some images: Jubal Harshaw. Large intestine villi cross sectioned showing goblet cells_100X_CS0187 on ShutterStock Jubal Harshaw. Large intestine villi shown in both longitudinal section and cross section on ShutterStock Garry ...


5

The basal lamina, a specialised type of extracellular matrix (ECM) that differs between cell types, acts as a base for stratified epithelia cells to layer on top of and therefore has a supportive role as well as providing a base for attachment (for the layer of cells immediately on top of it) 1. Layers of epithelial cells on top of further strata of similar ...


5

The collagen that holds together scar tissue is continuously degraded and replaced. (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1976) If collagen synthesis slows down, due to scurvy for example, old wounds can in theory reopen. Historic records of sea voyages contain descriptions of long-healed wounds opening back up in scurvy victims, and these cases are cited ...


4

The peritoneum, the pleura, the pericardium, the tunica vaginalis testis and the tunica serosa uteri are made of mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) [1]. The GI tube is made of a specialized tissue composed from four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and adventitia. The innermost layer (mucosa) has an epithelium that is stratified, squamous ...


4

The epidermis is a four- or five-layered epithelium. The top layers are squamous whereas the bottom ones are more columnar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidermis_(skin)). The lowest layer is separated from the dermis by the basal membrane (a.k.a. basal lamina, basement membrane). The process of wound healing in skin is extremely complex and obviously ...


4

Update 3: Credit should go to @Cornelius and @DMSever for initially identifying the tissue correctly. I incorporated D M Sever's answer into mine (Update 2,below) because his answer is being down voted for brevity, but he is a recognized authority in the field. I'll remove his answer from mine if his answer ends up being retained. I showed this question to ...


4

The term "non-immune immunoglobulin" is both confusing and non-standard in the immunology field - "pre-immune" is sometimes used, but not always accurate. A negative control is as they describe - the same diluents and components of the sample incubated with the antibody of interest, only they use a non-specific antibody of the same isotype that is not ...


4

Here is a single Helianthus (sunflower) vascular bundle, complements "The" Ohio State University. The xylem in a vascular bundle is generally the easiest to discern. The phloem tissues is always exterior to the xylem and the cells are generally more uniform and smaller than most of the xylem. Picking out the phloem is also more complicated by other cell ...


3

There are some more places other than what Bez has already mentioned. See here. However, tagging collagen may be a problem. Collagen undergoes a lot of post-translational modifications including hydroxylation and end clipping. It forms a unique structure (triplex) and adding tags may compromise its structural integrity. You can try Masson's trichome stain ...


3

I am no expert on the topic, but according to an article published on the centenary of his study, it states that the microscopical structure and classification of these areas are in parallel to the evolutionary distinction between old and new cortical subdivisions. So as and when new subdivisions are deduced (based on its function, cytoarchitecture or the ...


3

It would first be good to look at the different layers within the skin as you mentioned in your question. The skin is made up of: Epidermis: the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone Dermis: beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands Hypodermis: deeper ...


3

Osteocytes attach to each other by cytoplasmic extensions through gap junctions [1]. The connections between these cells are formed since they were osteoblasts and osteoid-osteocytes (type II preosteocyte) [1]. Osteoblasts have a greater volume than osteocytes and the lack of extracellular matrix favors their adhesion. As they begin to synthesize ...


3

Percentage of euchromatin varies between cell types and organisms. It has been shown that upto 88% of the human genome is transcribed; a phenomenon called pervasive transcription [1]. Highly specialized cells may have a lower percentage of transcribed regions and in females one entire X-chromosome is silenced (some regions in the silenced-X do show ...


3

In theory, "non-immune antibodies" are any kind of antibodies that do not bind the sample using their Fab, specific regions. See for example https://books.google.com/books?id=sFMJAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA80&ots=O9CqXW9kYt&pg=PA80#v=onepage&f=false Here, a claim is made that they might still bind non-specifically using their Fc regions. In practice, ...


3

Molecularly, Nissl bodies are the densely clustered ribosomes on the ER. The basophilia is due to the RNA in the ribosomes. The question you have raised is a very significant one. For perspective, I quote a book Fundamental Neuroscience, 2002 (2002 is pretty old for neuroscience!) The hillock is a region where materials either are committed to the axon (...


3

This is a slice of an adrenal gland: Source (Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License): http://histology.medicine.umich.edu/resources/endocrine-system These glands sit on top of the kidneys, typically under adipose tissue (which can also be seen in both your image and the image I included here). The most identifying feature of ...


3

Approximately, 250000-440000 neurons in Humans (Rice et al., 2016). The substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) complex is a heterogeneous collection of dopaminergic cell groups that extends from diencephalic to mesencephalic territories in many vertebrates, including rodents, non-human primates, and humans (Puelles and Verney 1998; see ...


3

I agree with Jan's answer generally, but thought I'd clarify a few points. What fills the space between the alveoli in the lungs? As Jan says, alveoli are packed together. In most cases, the thing next to any particular alveolus is another alveolus. In this case, the space between them is the alveolar wall, which (generally) consists of a pneumocyte and ...


3

If you have an antibody against the viral proteins you can do an immuno staining followed by fluorescence imaging. For this type of technique you would need a very specific antibody. I am not aware that this exist at the moment and I don't think anyone had the time to do it for immunostaining purposes. For FISH it would depend on the genomic nature of the ...


2

You can easily search this on the web. Osteoblasts are the immature cells of bone which are responsible for the production and mineralization of bone matrix. Osteocytes are the mature cells of bone found in open spaces in bone called lacunae. The functions of osteocytes includes maintenance of bone and calcium homeostasis. Osteoclasts are responsible ...


2

Neurons are tetraploid in pathological situations like Alzheimer disease: Neurons that duplicate their DNA are rarely observed to undergo mitosis, and they remain for long time as tetraploid cells, in accordance with the chronic course of the disease. We have recently shown that cell cycle re-entry and somatic tetraploidization occurs during normal ...


2

Tight junctions function to occlude the baso-apical flow of small molecules. However, tight junctions do not always completely seal a cell's lateral surface. In addition to regulating diffusion, tight junctions promote cell polarity. Establishment of polarity and prevention of water loss are the major roles of tight junctions in stratified squamous epithelia....


2

Epimysium is the specialized fascia located at the muscle. Epimysium is a layer of connective tissue, which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium [1]. The fascia that covers muscle is named ...


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