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24

Interesting question! I searched briefly and came up with an answer from this short paper. I won't repeat all the details of the paper, but to be not a completely link-only answer I will give a brief summary: The technology used at the time was a lot different than modern ECG leads: it used a Lippman capillary electrometer that used moving mercury to ...


20

The terms intron and exon were coined by Walter Gilbert in a renowned 'News and Views' article, Why Genes in Pieces, published in the journal Nature in 1978. Introns are the intragenic regions and exons are the regions which are expressed. This is the relevant passage in full: The notion of the cistron, the genetic unit of function that one thought ...


18

This is from Darwin's Notebook B: Transmutation of species from 1837–1838. From what I understand, the tree is a hypothetical depiction of descent used to discuss differences and relatedness between forms/species. This is the text that accompanies and follows the sketch (notebook pages 36-44): I think (sketch) Case must be that one generation ...


18

Darwin did propose that all extant organisms have a common ancestor: Therefore, on the principle of natural selection with divergence of character, it does not seem incredible that, from some such low and intermediate form, both animals and plants may have been developed; and, if we admit this, we must likewise admit that all the organic beings which have ...


17

Simply put, old habits die hard; physicians and other medical personnel have grown up with the old species designations so will continue to use them. This is somewhat the reverse of the case with E. coli, where 80-90% of the genome is variable across strains. Lin-Hui gives a brief history, where strains identified early were given specific names within ...


16

According to Gleick, Feynman spent the summer of 1960 in Delbrück's lab at Caltech and discovered intragenic supression. This is where the expression of a gene which has been knocked out by a mutation may be restored by a second mutation within the same gene. Fenynman worked with the rII mutant of phage T4 and was looking for back mutations in E.coli ...


14

Such projections are more formally known as spiculations. Most commonly, we talk about spiculations with respect to the radiographic appearance of malignant breast and lung lesions. This paper* describes the correlation between the mammorgraphic appearance of spiculated breast lesions and their pathology (microscopic appearance), which is a reasonable start ...


14

Front row, left to right; Victor McKusick, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson, Walter Gilbert and John Kendrew.


14

This paper describes a simple method to determine restriction sites, which was used to determine the restriction sequence of the previously uncharacterised enzyme from Haemophilus gallinarum. In short, a known sequence of DNA (from the phage $\phi \text{X174}$) is partially digested with the restriction enzyme, and the various digested fragments can be ...


13

Charles Darwin formulated his theory after travelling the world aboard the Beagle, here's the route. He found the Galapagos Islands particularly inspiring, 'The natural history of this archipelago is very remarkable: it seems to be a little world within itself.' This is a more detailed account of his relationship with the Galapagos islands, and there ...


12

Some that just come to mind, in random order: One cannot skip reading: Richard Dawkins - The selfish gene And, obviously: Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species And, for those interested in the evolution of the brain (and its quirks): David J Linden - The Accidental Mind Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Not very DNA/...


12

Mouth pipetting, while almost unheard of in modern laboratories in developed countries, is still very much a current protocol in many parts of the world. For example, this paper analyses the proportion of clinical labs in Pakistan and found evidence of poor biosafety practices (emphasis mine): Results: A total of 1,647 (92.4%) males and 135 (7.6%) ...


11

Basically nothing. The Nazis did unfathomably terrible things of little value, and they did it poorly. This* is a fascinating, albeit long, read. It goes through some of the ethics of the data, but first lists some more of the "experiments" the Nazis performed. To add to your list: high-altitude, sea water potability, tuberculosis, poisoning, artificial ...


11

The pollex was a Roman length measurement, approximately equivalent to an inch. The pollex was also known as the uncia, which is where the word "inch" comes from. There were 12 unciae in a pes ...


11

The whole point of Darwin's theory was that transition from one species to another is extremely slow and gradual. There are plenty of quotes in "Origin of Species" stating this, and also affirming that there is no clear boundary between species and subspecies, or "races". Quotes from Origin of Species > Variation under Nature (Chapter 2) Quote 1 ...


10

The branch of science you are looking for is taxonomy, that is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. Modern taxonomy was born from the studies of the Swedish zoologist Carl Linnæus (1707-1778), who first introduced, in his books Systema Naturae (Systems of Nature) and Species Plantarum (Plants Species) the ...


10

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis first shows up in pubmed in Gänzle et al. (1998). They reference Trüper and De'Clari (1997) for the name Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. The latter say: As none of them makes sense in the nominative apposition construction, we hereby correct these names to forms that are in agreement with Rule 12c as follows. ... ...


9

I don't know if these are his earliest descriptions but Darwin did describe several species of Planaria, such as Planaria vaginuloides, P. oceania, plus a new genus, Diplanaria in 1844. Darwin, C. R. 1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of ...


9

After reading your question, I had a vague memory that this subject was indirectly touched upon in "On the Origin of Species", so I did some text searches (in this pdf version I found online). From what I can see, Darwin never used the technical term 'variance' (I don't know how old this use of the word is), but 'variability' is often used, both with regard ...


9

There were many (more or less) non-theological theories of how life had developed before Darwin, starting at the ancient greeks. Many theories included spontaneous generation but also aspects of modification by descent of existing species (i.e. evolutionary change), but most were not that well developed and complete thought. However, one of the more complete ...


8

"Caud." refers to the tail (lat: cauda) and, judging from the description, "poll." seems to be another word for inch. So the translation should be something like: Body length: 8 inches, tail length: 9 inches.


8

In my opinion there might be two reasons why the camel hump (rather than bump) might be one of the adequate adaptations of camels to living in the cold (additional to their flat feet giving hold on both snow and sand and tooth structure, Rybczynski et al., 2012). Both match the humps being fat storages in modern camels. The first is also provided by ...


8

I don't believe you'll ever find the first work in bioinformatics (or computational biology, as you put it), however the field really began in the times of accumulating data about protein biochemistry. Computational biologists (before they had access to the computer) would be writing and analyzing morphologies and types of proteins with pencil and paper. ...


8

Another nomination, if you include infectious disease epidemiology as part of biology and hence computational simulations of epidemics as part of computational biology: Measles periodicity and Community Size, M. S. Bartlett, J. Roy. Stat Soc. A, 120(1), 1957. The computations were run on the Manchester computer. Possibly the most entertaining part of the ...


8

The first quote is correct. 'Microsome' is more of a lab term. This is because, as said they are found (re-formed) after centrifugation and as such aren't seen in an intact cell. Differential centrifugation is a technique used to separate cellular constituents into fractions. To quote, The microsomal fraction is the pellet produced when the ...


7

The process of long-term depression (LTD) was first discovered in the cerebellum by Ito et al. in 1982: Ito M, Kano M. Long-lasting depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell transmission induced by conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. Neurosci Lett. 1982;33(3):253-8 Ito M, Sakurai M and Tongroach P. ...


7

This is a very interesting question. Many people have researched this topic, and many still are. But regardless, I had never heard of Alan Turing's contributions, so thank you! First of all, I cannot actually find who first coined the term morphogen. Though people had hypothesized that chemicals could play a critical role in development through much of the ...


7

A good recollection of the early days of micro and molecular biology is "The Eighth day of Creation" It covers the early use of e. coli, the discovery of phage, transcriptional elements and the impact that DNA structure had. It's very comprehensive and really useful if you are doing molecular biology today.


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