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35 votes
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Has there even been a clinical study where healthy volunteers consented to be infected with a pathogen?

This is a great biological question! It asks a lot about how empirical science is done in the field of modern biology. I'm glad we encourage such questions from curious people who want to learn more. ...
Alex Reynolds's user avatar
24 votes
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ECG wave names origin

Interesting question! I searched briefly and came up with an answer from this short paper. I won't repeat all the details of the paper, but to be not a completely link-only answer I will give a brief ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.3k
20 votes
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Why aren't 'exons' named 'introns'?

The terms intron and exon were coined by Walter Gilbert in a renowned 'News and Views' article, Why Genes in Pieces, published in the journal Nature in 1978. Introns are the intragenic regions and ...
user338907's user avatar
  • 4,678
19 votes
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What is the evidence that plants and animals had a common ancestor?

Darwin did propose that all extant organisms have a common ancestor: Therefore, on the principle of natural selection with divergence of character, it does not seem incredible that, from some such ...
iayork's user avatar
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18 votes
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Darwin's first sketch of a phylogenetic tree

This is from Darwin's Notebook B: Transmutation of species from 1837–1838. From what I understand, the tree is a hypothetical depiction of descent used to discuss differences and relatedness between ...
fileunderwater's user avatar
18 votes

Has there even been a clinical study where healthy volunteers consented to be infected with a pathogen?

Yes, Dr Barry Marshall self administered Helicobacter pylori to investigate whether it causes stomach ulcers. He won a Nobel Prize for it. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barry_Marshall
Polypipe Wrangler's user avatar
14 votes
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Restriction enzymes, how are the recognition sequences determined?

This paper describes a simple method to determine restriction sites, which was used to determine the restriction sequence of the previously uncharacterised enzyme from Haemophilus gallinarum. In ...
March Ho's user avatar
  • 9,442
13 votes
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How to decipher references in natural history works of the late Renaissance and early Modernity?

I have found what may be the holy grail. It is a book known as "A Botanical Materia Medica" by Jonathan Stokes. This has several volumes, but the one you want is volume 1, which has no ...
bob1's user avatar
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11 votes
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Was Darwin aware of the difficulties behind the concept of species?

The whole point of Darwin's theory was that transition from one species to another is extremely slow and gradual. There are plenty of quotes in "Origin of Species" stating this, and also affirming ...
IMil's user avatar
  • 421
11 votes

Has there even been a clinical study where healthy volunteers consented to be infected with a pathogen?

All the time! For example Flucamp does research on influenza, rhinovirus and (non-SARS) coronaviruses, that involves deliberate infection of paid volunteers. When the trial starts, we only ...
James K's user avatar
  • 298
10 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

I am Rosemarie Swanson, still alive, and yes, the Gray code representation of the codon wheel was my idea. I was trying to develop a linear similarity scale for amino acids. On Thanksgiving of 1977,...
Rosemarie Swanson's user avatar
10 votes
Accepted

Why do we use an autoclave at 121°C (250F)? (Origin)

Quick answer: For historical and engineering reasons, standards for sterilization with autoclaves were developed with steam pressure and time being the operational parameters. Temperature wasn't even ...
DrRadium's user avatar
  • 339
10 votes
Accepted

Why were there relatively fewer papers about cell fusion before the 1950s?

Since you need to be able to grow cells for studying their interactions, I think the main reason for this is the development of cell culture techniques in the late 1940s and early 1950s. As an example ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
8 votes
Accepted

What was the first piece of work in computational biology?

Another nomination, if you include infectious disease epidemiology as part of biology and hence computational simulations of epidemics as part of computational biology: Measles periodicity and ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,344
8 votes

What was the first piece of work in computational biology?

I don't believe you'll ever find the first work in bioinformatics (or computational biology, as you put it), however the field really began in the times of accumulating data about protein biochemistry....
Alina Davydov's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

What were the camels' humps good for back in the polar areas?

In my opinion there might be two reasons why the camel hump (rather than bump) might be one of the adequate adaptations of camels to living in the cold (additional to their flat feet giving hold on ...
AlexDeLarge's user avatar
  • 2,868
8 votes
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What is a microsome?

The first quote is correct. 'Microsome' is more of a lab term. This is because, as said they are found (re-formed) after centrifugation and as such aren't seen in an intact cell. Differential ...
Polisetty's user avatar
  • 3,687
8 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

It is very difficult to answer this one for certain but I think the codon wheel representation is sometimes attributed to Rosemarie Swanson who represented the amino acid code using Gray code (or ...
Johnny's user avatar
  • 1,509
7 votes
Accepted

Graph of new species discovered per year

Here is an answer; as I'll explain, it's not getting the same numbers you quoted above (that could be a deep methodological rabbit hole), but it gives a reasonable answer. I started from the data at ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,344
6 votes

ECG wave names origin

According to this site: http://www.ecglibrary.com/ecghist.html Originally the waves were designated as A,B,C& D but after correction they were termed as P,QRS, T. Why PQRST and not ABCDE? The ...
JM97's user avatar
  • 4,786
6 votes
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When was it discovered XY chromosomes decide the sex of a child in humans?

The discovery of genetic sex determination, and determination of sex via male gametes (in XY species, female in ZW), occurred over some time in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Advances were made ...
rg255's user avatar
  • 16.1k
6 votes

Where did the term "vegetative nervous system" come from?

"Vegetative" doesn't only mean related to plants, but has other less common meanings. 4 a (1) : growing or having the power of growing (2) : of, relating to, or engaged in nutritive and growth ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.3k
6 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

This answer *pre-dates* the others' focus on Rosemarie Swanson The German Wikipedia article for the "code-sun" credits this circular diagram to Carsten Bresch and Rudolf Hausmann1. 1. ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
6 votes

What did Francis Crick and James Watson discover that Rosalind Franklin didn't?

There were staff migrations and personality issues, information leaks between researchers and other factors. Her boss annoyed her. Watson and Crick used her geometry of a helix with previously known ...
bandybabboon's user avatar
  • 10.4k
6 votes

Why did Rivers replace Koch's postulates?

If you read his 1937 article, Rivers himself makes a case for why Koch's postulates are too restrictive and that all the postulates need not be satisfied to confidently associate a pathogen with a ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,286
5 votes
Accepted

Did early 20th century researchers state why they used E. coli as a model organism?

Historical Fallacies implicit in the Question “…why a researcher chose to use E. coli as a model organism.” Researchers did not work with E. coli because they regarded it as a “model ...
David's user avatar
  • 24.9k
5 votes
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On which chromosomes were the traits studied by Mendel?

The yellow/green color of seeds is on chromosome 1, but the color for for the pods is on chromosome 5. The smooth/wrinkly seed shape is on chromosome 7; however for the pods a similar contrast is ...
Dolphin 613 Motorboat's user avatar

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