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Short answer It is a flying lemur (there exist only 2 species). Flying lemurs and primates are together a sister clade to treeshrews. Easy source of information Have a look at the post The best free and most up to date phylogenetic tree on the internet?. In short, you can have a look at onezoom.org, tolweb.org or opentreeoflife.org by yourself! Tree of ...


26

Here is a tutorial to perfectly understand Hardy-Weinberg Rule! If you feel like you just need a brief reminder, you can skip the text until the section In short... and try out the exercises just to check your understanding. Terms you should know a priori I will not define the following terms, so make sure you understand them locus allele (relative) ...


24

This is a very subtle question and I encourage you to read the Wikipedia articles on these different subjects (t-test, chi-squared test, p-value, etc) because the authors worked hard to combat common misconceptions about these commonly used statistical tests. Here is a rather oversimplified rule-of-thumb for these different tests: t-test: Used when you are ...


24

The most closely related animals to primates are colugos (order Dermoptera). The next most closely related after colugos are tree shrews (order Scandentia). The next most closely related after tree shrews are rodents (order Rodentia) and lagomorphs (order Lagomorpha) (rabbits, hares, and pikas). Sources: Wikipedia's section on the evolutionary history of ...


20

The terms intron and exon were coined by Walter Gilbert in a renowned 'News and Views' article, Why Genes in Pieces, published in the journal Nature in 1978. Introns are the intragenic regions and exons are the regions which are expressed. This is the relevant passage in full: The notion of the cistron, the genetic unit of function that one thought ...


17

Your reasoning is sound and correct. The answer key is wrong. An unclotted blood sample needs something to prevent clotting. Extracellular calcium is required for both the coagulation cascade and platelet activation. It even has its own name in this context, Factor IV. This why EDTA, a calcium chelator, is used in some blood collection tubes to delay ...


13

I agree with you that the question is ambiguous, and also that the most sensible answer would be C. However, one could make a more or less reasonable argument in favor of several other answers, too. a. The common ancestor of whales and fish possessed genes for fins. Technically, this statement is true. At least some of the fins of whales and fish are ...


13

Enzymes can catalyze a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction by coupling it with a thermodynamically favorable reaction. Most often, enzymes use ATP hydrolysis reaction (energetically favorable) as a source of energy (in simple terms) to drive the unfavorable reaction forward. One important point to keep in mind here is that enzymes don't drive a reaction ...


12

Can enzymes catalyze thermodynamically unfavourable reactions? Enzymes don't change the equilibrium of a reaction, but the fact that an equilibrium exists means that the reaction proceeds in both the forward and reverse directions. Before equilibrium is attained, ΔG for the reaction is not 0. Thus, by definition, one direction is thermodynamically ...


11

There are two answers if the question refers to genomic DNA (neither enucleated ova nor mature RBCs have genomic DNA). However, since the question doesn't specify genomic DNA, we can exclude enucleated ova, which would still have mitochondria and therefore mitochondrial genomic DNA. Mature RBCS (at least in most mammals) do not have mitochondria, so the ...


10

There is no answer to your question The doubling time of a bacterium is dependent on the conditions: primarily on the temperature and the availability of nutrients, but other factors can apply. Because of this, the doubling time of any particular bacterial strain cannot be considered in the abstract, thus to give a single number we can consider the optimum ...


9

Databases There are too many databases to list here, but Wikipedia has a decent list of the genome databases. For example, there are databases dedicated to genes of individual species, like Wormbase, SGDB and countless others. Alternatively, as others mention a great place to kick off your search is the NCBI. Finding your nucleotide sequence in databases It ...


8

NCBI is a good option. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov If you're looking for a gene sequence, you can search for the gene name in the nucleotide database. For example, here is the annotated human insulin gene; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/J00265.1


8

The reason why the cell would shrink more in CaCl2 solution is because it has a higher van't Hoff factor i.e. total number of dissociated ionic species per solute molecule (it is 2 for NaCl whereas it is 3 for CaCl2). (Nonionic solutes do not dissociate and will therefore have a van't Hoff factor of 1) Osmotic pressure (and other colligative properties) ...


8

The key here is that it is a question about mitochondrial DNA. mtDNA in humans is inherited maternally (from the mother). Both sons and daughters inherit mtDNA, but only the daughters will pass it on to the next generation. A child's mtDNA has to come from his or her mother, and all of a person's mitochondria are genetically identical. Therefore, children ...


8

If you think about the boiling of water, I'm sure you can understand that heat breaks hydrogen bonds. Next consider that the hydrophobic effect is driven entropically and so, by the equation $\Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S$, its strength increases with temperature (to a point). See here and here for further explanation. Also, this paper for a more empirical ...


8

Short answer Sedges have edges, and they're in different families. See Minnesota Wildflowers for a great summary with images. Long answer Both are in the order Poales, but they are in different families: Grasses = Poaceae (of the graminid clade) Sedges = Cyperaceae (of the [non-monophyletic]1 cypirid lineage) Some anatomical differences: Compiled ...


7

Assumptions: Blonde hair is Homozygous Recessive and that the traits are strictly Mendelian. The parental generation must be both heterozygotes as at least one child is Blonde (bb). So your cross is Bb x Bb. Your square is going to look like this: _B_ _b_ _B_ BB Bb _b_ bB bb So of the question ...


7

I got $26$% as the answer. To get a recombination between C and E, there are two possible mechanisms:- C and D produce a recombinant, but D and E remain linked, therefore the final genotype will be a recombinant considering C and E(Chiasmata between C and D). Here $P_1=P_{CD}\times P'_{DE}$ where $P$ is the probability of recombination and $P'=1-P$ is ...


7

There are actually very few situations where organs can be harvested from donors. For all deceased donor transplants, the donor must be confirmed as being brain dead (both brain stem and higher cortical functions). However, in order for the organs to remain viable they must not become ischaemic - which is obviously a huge problem when the patients heart has ...


7

MSA Tools compare the amino acid sequence of protein 1 with nine homologous proteins and make a multi-alignment of the sequences. EBI have a portal for many MSA tools and there are also other MSA tools available elsewhere. In research, it's good practice to use several alignment techniques and look at which generates sensible indels. Usually, this is the ...


7

Alleles are basically subtypes of a gene. At the time of Mendel, the molecular nature of inheritance was not known so the original definition of gene refers to "some" inheritable molecular entity inside the organism that is responsible for a trait. Alleles are different "flavours" of a given gene. For example there is a gene for flower colour, there can be ...


7

Because the start codon is translated into methionine, it clearly can not be part of the 5'-untranslated region, as @Johnny writes in his answer. The more contentious question would be for the stop codons and the 3'-untranslated region. Then it really is a question of semantics. One might argue that as no amino acid is inserted in response to these codons, ...


7

Lets say there are 2 alleles. One of them is represented by B and other by b. Both will have some frequency at a specific time in a population. Now, frequency is number of that allele divided by total alleles. So, if frequency of B is, say X, the frequency of b is Y=(1-x). It would be because whatever alleles are not B are, for sure, b. That gives us our ...


7

p = p(a) = 0.6 q = p(A) = 0.4 Frequency of homozygous recessive, aa = p2 = 0.36 All other genotypes have dominant phenotype therefore the frequency of the dominant phenotype is 1-0.36 = 0.64 (Frequency of homozygous AA = q2 = 0.16 Frequency of heterozygous Aa = 2pq = 0.48) And if you want a deeper explanation you really should study this answer by Remi....


7

The simple answer Under the assumption that each mRNA molecule is translated at least once, by necessity translation will happen more often than transcription. This is because the only way to get a protein is to translate an mRNA. In other words, as long as there are more protein molecules (translation products) than mRNA molecules in a cell, then the ...


6

This is basically the same solution as @AlanBoyd's answer, but since he asked me to, I will post my solution as well (also a reason to try out $\mathcal{MathJax}$ a bit more). Assuming: $f(A)=p=0.3, \\f(a)=q=0.7$ and the standard formulas: $f(AA)=p^2\\ f(Aa)=2pq\\ f(aa)=q^2$ gives these genotypes in the parental generation (G1), before and after ...


6

The question is a bit vague in some important parts, so I'll have to make a few assumptions about what the authors likely meant. RNAses are enzymes that degrade RNA. There are a few different ones that lead to different kinds of degradation. The type that you would use in an experiment like this is an RNAse that completely degrades RNA. The purpose of this ...


6

If really cystic fibrose is expressed only in homozygotes, then here are some possible explanations: Mutation very improbable Autofecundation very improbable False Negative when testing the father Because of the test False Negative Rate. @kmm made a very interesting comment below. He said that according to this article 75% of the mutations coding for ...


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