Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.
11

Heated Honey and HMF In this paper, Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats, by Annapoorani, et.al.;International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 2010 Apr-Jun; 31(2): 141–146.doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.72363, the report finds a statistically significant increase ...


11

The paper's description is poor, but they seem to be describing an encoding where each of 20 possible amino acids are associated with a position within a string of 20 bits, e.g. alanine with offset 0, cysteine with offset 1, etc. With that representation, one amino acid residue within a window is encoded by a string of 20 bits, 19 of them being 0 and the ...


8

Welcome to Biology.SE! About your title Let me first react to your title: Viruses selected by evolution. Evolution is any process of genetic (and eventually phenotypic) change in a population through time. Selection (Natural Selection for example) is one of such process. Genetic drift is another such process. So, evolution doesn't select viruses unlike ...


5

Not all pathogens are parasites. Many opportunistic infections can be caused by organisms that are normally commensal or even mutualistic. For example, this paper describes how multiple bacteria species can be pathogenic as well as mutualistic. Despite its generally innocuous nature, over the past 20 years S. epidermidis has emerged as a frequent ...


4

Schistosoma recognize human skin by mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli from host. Attachment of parasite to skin is stimulated by L-arginine. Schistosomes specifically bind to L -argine by chemotaxis. L-arginine guides this parasite towards site of penetration. The lipids on the human skin surface also serve as signal for host invasion. It is also ...


4

It probably makes sense to classify mushrooms (fungi) in two separate ways: symbiotic vs. free-living: symbiotic organisms are those that live in close association with a host (etymologically sym="with", biosis="life"), free-living organisms don't. So a mycorrhizal fungus that lives within or on the surface of a plant root is a symbiote; a fungus that ...


4

Short Answer: Nothing prevents it, most Plasmodium (gametocytes/gametes/zygotes/ookinetes) are killed. Background: After lots of search, I finally found a definite answer about this. According to Smith et al, 2014, the survival rate of Plasmodium in the Anopheles gut is very low. At each developmental step during their life cycle, a large proportion of ...


4

Disclaimer: I am trying to answer the question without finding any academic research on the topic. So, appreciate hypotheses and feel free to point out mistakes. Short Answer : Co- Evolution Broad Answer: 2 hypotheses The gamete stage of Malaria parasite simply co-evolved with Anopheles sp. to develop a protective mechanism to survive digestion in crop. ...


4

I am not sure if a perfect answer is possible owing to the fact that Prion diseases are still incompletely understood, and are actively under research. On a preliminary search, I found some papers which address the issue (cited at the end). Since $PrP^C$ is normally found in the body, its role and its transport is also relevant to the issue. It seems to ...


3

M00115 is a pathway module (NAD biosynthesis) whereas M00542 is a signature module (EHEC/EPEC pathogenicity signature). From the KEGG page on modules: pathway modules – representing tight functional units in KEGG metabolic pathway maps, such as M00002 (Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds) signature modules – as markers of ...


2

Module means, as defined in the KEGG Module page, a functional unit. So it can be anything, from groups of enzymes to genes to metabolites. About the two that concerns you: Pathway modules represent groups of functionally related enzymes part of the metabolic network. I think this one is easy to understand because it represents the classical understanding ...


2

From the abstract of the linked article (Guttman, 2002): We used an in vivo genetic screen to identify 13 effectors [...]. Although sharing little overall homology, the amino-terminal regions of these effectors had strikingly similar amino acid compositions. And from the body: The screen relied on the type III secretion signal and the endogenous ...


2

Macrophages and monocytic cells can express CD4, CD8 or even co-express them. The CD4 and CD8 molecules interact with MHC complexes on neighboring cells, and as you can imagine elicit varying effect in a cell type-dependent manner. Plainly enough, Zhen et al. demonstrated that monocytic CD4 ligation to MHC-II molecules on other cells, such as activated ...


1

Mutations are random; the (pathogenic) bacteria (or any living being) will randomly acquire mutations that may be beneficial, deleterious or neutral to its fitness. Only beneficial and neutral mutations will survive the selection. Random mutations and survival of the fittest are not two independent mechanisms. The random mutations can alter the fitness as I ...


1

I am neither a parasitologist nor an immunologist, so these suggestions are only provided as a starting point and may meet valid criticisms from others. However, as your comment mentions the 1918 flu epidemic, a couple of general suggestions. Assuming that resistance to pathogenic organisms can involve the immune response, then at least two factors that ...


1

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0027909 Members of the genus Xenorhabdus are entomopathogenic bacteria that associate with nematodes. The nematode-bacteria pair infects and kills insects, with both partners contributing to insect pathogenesis and the bacteria providing nutrition to the nematode from available insect-...


1

Although we think of parasites as harmful and tend not to consider them for conservation, they do peform valuable functions including population regulation and the development of immune systems. More philosophically, under the 'intrinsic value' argument sometimes used for conservation, every species should be considered to have an intrinsic right to ...


1

Sticking my neck out (and expecting it to be bitten by a black swan) it appears that all the examples of toxins secreted by bacterial pathogens when they infect an animal host (exotoxins) are proteins. However fungi secrete a variety of exotic (and often very nasty) small non-protein molecules (mycotoxins). It’s not clear from the question whether you ...


1

As a starting point I would suggest you look at genomes of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles (organisms that thrive at upwards of 40 °C and 60 °C respectively), which are often found near underwater volcanos or hot springs. For instance, one could do a genomic analysis of the archaean Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, comparing it to mesophilic species of ...


1

The question is a matter of definitions. A parasite is an agent that causes harm to another agent A pathogen is an agent that causes disease to another agent. A disease is bad. Therefore, all pathogens are necessarily parasites. Note that some definitions of parasites, imply that the parasite benefits from the relationship. In which case, then the above ...


1

Not only active parasitism by pathogens, but any kind of interaction that leads to advantage of one species while causing disadvantage to the other species is considered a parasitic interaction. In this post, Remi has explained why even Batesian mimicry can be considered a parasitic interaction. The only case where a microbe could be pathogenic but non-...


1

Theoretically there are two very basic things to consider in judging virulence for the secretion systems: a) Can it secrete into any human cell? (If not, chances of being virulent are smaller, but not zero as whatever is secreted in the environment of a cell could also be harmful for the cell.) b) Does it secrete some agent (protein, RNA, molecule), which ...


1

I think you cannot find a better answer then the following review: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v13/n6/full/nrmicro3456.html It was published in 2015, and it gives a good overview about the secretion systems. Anyway, T6SS can also be virulent. Vibrio cholerae can use an effector of this SS to cross-link actin in the host cell and modify its ...


1

No not necessarily. Cancer can also be caused by bacteria and viruses in your body The regulation of cancerous tumor development is converged upon by multiple pathways and factors. Besides environmental factors, gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer can be caused by chronic inflammation, which is generally induced by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The ...


1

According to the two papers listed below, this is mostly done by a neutrophilic inflammatory response. The response is regulated by mechanisms of the innate immune system and is mediated by receptor like TLR2, TLR4 and SIGN-R1. Role of Dectin-2 in the host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection Dectin-2-dependent NKT cell activation and serotype-...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible