5

Do people need nitrogen from air for health? No. This is well established! Can people breath totally nitrogen-free atmosphere for a long time? Yes. Also well established! I know, nitrogen is essential for life, and in big quantities, but maybe people can take it entirely from food, from proteins, etc? As expounded on in the comments by AliceD, nitrogen ...


5

In short, no. It's not harmful but it won't do anything to prevent or mitigate the current infection. How vaccines work in general is that they train the immune system to respond to an infection so that they are prepared for it. Generally protein component of the virus or an inactivated form of the pathogen is used as a vaccine. The immune system recognises ...


5

The gut microbiome is partly to blame, at least for the associations of red meat consumption with heart disease. Red meat has a high concentration of L-carnitine, which is metabolized by bacteria in the gut to produce trimethylamine, which is further metabolized by FMO3 in the liver to produce trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). High blood levels of TMAO are ...


4

I think what they mean is that those affected with haemophilia rarely survive to the adult life. This is less of a constraint for women, since a woman carrying only one recessive gene will not be affected by this disorder.


3

Yes, it is possible to get decompression sickness with other gasses, such as the "oxygen bends" or oxygen decompression. For instance, in this study, they demonstrated that oxygen decompression sickness in mice. Another study demonstrates a more common non-nitrogen decompression sickness - helium bends. Undoubtedly you will be wondering at this ...


2

Mortality. The reason the most common examples of haemophilia in history occur among nobles is not because the nobles were a particularly sickly bunch of people. It is because they lived sufficiently pampered lives to actually become adults, and reproduce their haemophilia. In the same era, a commoner or even a rich merchant family would not be very likely ...


2

The water doesn't get drained. As blood flows down a vas rectum, in any given section of the arteriole the tonicity is slightly higher outside the arteriole vs inside the arteriole. This results in a small amount of water flowing out of the arteriole to attempt to equilibrate the osmolarity. But before this has even finished happening, the blood has ...


1

In short many things determine life expectancy and the interplay between different factors will determine an individuals life expectancy and a species' average life expectancy. How life expectancy links to size: Among mammals there is an inverse relation between heart rate and life expectancy (mammals tend to average 7.3+/15.6 x10^8 beats per lifetime which ...


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