Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange
88

Blood is not a good source of water. 1 liter of blood contains about 800 mL of water, 170 grams of protein and 2 grams of sodium (calculated from the composition of lamb blood). When metabolized, 170 grams of protein yields the amount of urea that requires 1,360 mL of water to be excreted in urine (calculated from here); 2 grams of sodium requires about ...


19

(my comment reiterating the answer seemed useful, so I've reproduced it here) There are "NMDA receptors" in our body. There is not NMDA naturally in our body*. "NMDA receptor" is just a name people gave to one of the receptors that normally binds glutamate. They could have called it something else, like the "slow glu receptor", or "Glutamate Receptor A", ...


18

You can drink blood of course to a minimalistic amount (eg- a few teaspoons ) and also if blood is free from pathogens. But it should always be in very small amounts and from suitable donor. Here's why The strange fact is, blood, when drank, is toxic. When confined to places where blood is supposed to be — such as the heart, vessels, and so on — it is ...


10

Here is a specific account of a person surviving at sea drinking turtle blood, while eating some fish and drinking some rain water. Several peoples have a habit of drinking raw animal blood, at least for ritual purposes; here is a recent account. They probably drink more than a few spoons full so that the Lifescience article quoted by Ishi appears alarmist.


7

A lot of sexually active adults carry one or another strain of HPV but most do not develop cancer. You can carry HPV — and spread it to others — without showing any symptoms yourself: HPV infections are so common that nearly all men and women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. Most people never know that they have been ...


3

Preamble The question suggests unfamiliarity with the nature of biochemical oxidations and their relation to energy transfer in biology. The naïve reader is recommended to consult a text for a coverage of this subject: all I feel is appropriate here is a general summary followed by a brief indication of the key reactions. General principles of energetic ...


3

Summary Many genomic sequences are available for measles virus. For example, a recent paper reports the sequencing of the RNA genomes (not DNA) of six different strains of measles virus: Phan et al. “Complete Genome Sequences of Six Measles Virus Strains” Genome Announc. 2018 Mar; 6(13): e00184-18 This is just an announcement with details of how to access ...


3

Drinking urine could help you stay hydrated a bit longer, maybe a day, but only when you are well hydrated at the start. You could get about 0.5-1 liter extra water this way. This doesn't work anymore when you start drinking urine the 2nd or 3rd day without water - the amount of urine will be very small and will be too concentrated at that time. A man, ...


3

To correct the article you referenced the neural tube closure normally occurs by the fourth week of pregnancy (28th day after conception). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279093/ The Brainstem is comprised of three parts: Medulla (Melincephalon) The Pons (Metincephalon) The Midbrain (Mesencephalon) During fetal development the brainstem ...


2

The muscle responsible for being able to raise both eyebrows is one and the same (m. occipitofrontalis). You can not raise one eyebrow because the whole muscle is connected to both eyes. It is possible that one side is not connected or less connected but that's usually not the case and such a person would not be able to raise both eyebrows at will. What ...


2

From presentations made by oncologists at a cancer survivors support group at MDAnderson ; chances are very high the young people will get some HPV by age 20. The upside is that of the 50+ strains of HPV only a few cause cancers : but why take any chance on cancer ? Another upside is there is now data that the vaccine works : It took time to show results ...


1

A recent Nature article, entitled A new genomic blueprint of the human gut microbiota, contains the following Figure: [Fig. 3 Phylogeny of reference and uncultured human gut bacterial genomes] I don’t know much about bacteria, but, according to their entries in Wikipedia, Actinobacteria, and most Firmicutes are gram-positive and, as these appear to be ...


1

According to Reverse Cholesterol Transport: Molecular Mechanisms and the Non-medical Approach to Enhance HDL Cholesterol (Frontiers in Physiology, 2018), both HDL and LDL are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In short: HDL takes cholesterol from the blood (from lipid-laden macrophages) and delivers it to the liver 1) via scavenger receptors (SR-B1)...


1

There are many hundreds, if not thousands, of measles genomes sequenced. A search on the NCBI Nucleotide Database for "measles" "complete genome" pulls up hundreds of hits (May 2019). Modern sequencers can completely sequence a measles genome in a matter of hours. With modern approaches, genome sequencing is so trivial that it's rarely published as such. ...


1

The tendon and muscle attachment are not the same. In your example, both are affected, so they are described separately. A muscle extends into a tendon and this into an enthesis - an actual attachment site where the muscle is attached to the bone (PubMed).


1

There is no clear-cut line between "synthetic" and "natural" substances. They are made from the same kinds of atoms using the same kinds of covalent, ionic, and other types of bonds. The fact that a substance MAY be produced by some organism by biological processes does not make it any different from the same substance made in a laboratory by a human ...


1

Not within the next two decades, at least (assuming you meant nearly total reversal of the effects of physiological aging). Any further than that is impossible to predict, since we are likely only a few breakthroughs away at this point (however, with extremely bad luck, these could take centuries to achieve, since presumably no scientist knows the 'optimal ...


1

Not exactly. However, assuming that we will eventually be able to reverse the effects of aging, cancer formation will become much more rare as a by-product. The explanation for this is a bit involved, due to the complexity of the subject. One of the most fundamental processes that drive human aging is the irreversible accumulation of genomic (and ...


1

Ingested food is digested within the digestive canal. This means that it is broken down into smaller molecules that are then transported into cells lining the digestive canal (by proteins that expend energy to do this). The nutrients are then further transported until they reach blood vessels (or, in the case of lipids, lymphatic vessels, which eventually ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible