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Food only partially buffers the pH of stomach contents and acid is not the only esophageal irritant present in the stomach. The goal, therefore, is to have as little as possible present in the stomach when lying down (supine) to reduce risk of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) into the esophagus. Avoiding meals just ...


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During development of the brain neurons undergo several steps of differentiation. They transition from neuronal progenitors to mature neurons, resulting in different types of neurons, characterized most prominently by their primary neurotransmitter. During the differentiation, different genes are expressed, which in research is used to label specific cell ...


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No. The heritable immunity you are describing is due to selective pressures on populations where individuals with certain alleles have a survival advantage in the face of particular pathogens. If a population is exposed to deadly diseases like smallpox and there are some individuals in the population who are more resistant, those individuals are more likely ...


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Depends highly on the amount of steam in the room. Most if the heat energy does not come from the air, but from the steam that is condensing on your skin. I can tell from my own experience that I regularly spend 20-30 minutes in 80c sauna while pouring more water to the stove every few minutes without getting too uncomfortable (as long as I have water to ...


1

No, absence of an stimulating substance is not appropriate to consider as inhibition. To see why, consider a situation where there are two such substances, substance A and substance B, which can both stimulate protein P (many such relations exist). If you add only substance B, then protein P will be stimulated. Since P is being stimulated in this case, it ...


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