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The question is already answered by Armand. I am just going to elaborate on that by referencing the paper. Different isotopes of chemical elements have slightly different chemical behaviors, but for most elements the differences are far too small to have a biological effect. In the case of hydrogen, differences in chemical properties among protium (light ...


14

Substitution of deuterium atoms for normal hydrogen atoms changes structure and function at the atomic scale, disrupting normal biological processes. It causes changes in protein conformation and changes chemical reactions, as more and more $D$ replaces $H$, in water, substrates, macromolecules etc. "Stuff" doesn't work quite right and works less ...


6

Sex-linkage would be the canonical example. In other words, people with phenotypically male or female sex characteristics have non-random genetic predilections towards specific X-linked traits such as hemophilia, color-blindness, Duchenne dystrophy, etc. However, other classic examples would include linkage between blood group antigens and peptic ulcers. For ...


3

Proteins are fairly fragile molecular machines. They are subjected to environmental and intentional degradation all the time. There is quite a bit of variability across different protein types in how long they last, but none are permanent. Chen et al 2016 write: For example, RALB is a GTPase, and is involved in a variety of cellular processes including gene ...


1

Quite apart from the fact that those ionic potentials are what we feel WITH, they're on the order of 70-80 millivolts. Would you expect to be shocked by say a common 1.5 volt battery? Or even the 12 volts of an ordinary car battery? Even the ordinary sort of static electricity shock, such as you might feel from stroking a cat on a dry day, can be thousands ...


1

There is no specific number of dead cells to be honest that serves as the threshold for pain, it is the molecules that are responsible for decreasing or increasing the threshold of pain either peripherally (at the site of nociceptors) or centrally (endogenous opioids). Here is a diagram that kind of summarizes pain pathophysiology at nociceptor level. For ...


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