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There is a comprehensive 2012 review of the development of the mammary gland by Macias and Hinck which covers the poster’s question(s). I shall try to summarize the points they make regarding the development of alveoli and their role in milk secretion, ‘borrowing’ two of their illustrations to do so. Development of mammary gland and role of hormones At ...


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This is just a confusion of English. "Supplied" is a bit of a weird term to use, I agree, due to the direction of information flow, but feel free to substitute in just "connected to". It seems pretty common to use this word, for example Wikipedia says: A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by afferent nerve fibres from ...


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Short answer The current consensus is that hair cells in the cochlea of humans do not regenerate spontaneously. Background I took the liberty to show the linked paper to a colleague of mine. This guy has been doing histology on the inner ear for his entire professional career. He pointed out that the consensus is that in mammals, cochlear hair cells do not ...


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Myoblasts are the embryonic precursors of myocytes (also called muscle cells). Myoblasts differentiate into muscle cells through a process called myogenesis. A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell. Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes, known as muscle fibres in striated muscle, and these cells ...


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As with any evolutionary "why" question, most any answer will likely involve some speculation. But we can still think about what we do know in relation to the question. First, lets think about thermogenesis in humans. As your questions mentions, humans move to stay warm. This is because the conversion of chemical energy (in the form of ATP) into ...


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