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As cooperative entities (cells) form a larger body, the larger body takes up functions that are beyond the scope of an individual cell. This involves storing and processing information at a higher level of abstraction and quantity. Your blood cell wouldn't be able to understand what a computer is, in the same way your blood cell doesn't expect you to ...


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The life of the radicals decides how far they move. This paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310837/#!po=6.92308 has a table of half lives of radicals, the longest lasting ones (the radical of nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide) have half lives of seconds. Diffusion theough the skin would be slow Technically the problem is "reactive oxygen ...


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Preamble: The problem with questions on evolution Obviously, evolutionary biology is a reputable discipline, but unfortunately there two types of questions on evolution that are often posted on this site that I believe are of little value and can lead to dangerously unscientific habits of mind. The first is questions of the type “Why did such and such ...


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If you're interested in the biological or health effects of various chemicals, try to look up the Safety Data Sheet, or "SDS" or "MSDS", for that chemical compound. Going to your favorite search engine and plugging in your chemical of interest to the search term "SDS" or "MSDS" will almost always get you to some kind of answer — either what you're looking ...


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First of all a disclaimer, I am not an expert in this subject, but I have read these studies and came to this understanding. There might be a chance I get a lot of stuff wrong. From another paper by the same authors, this time regarding 222nm UVC: We have previously shown that 207-nm light emitted by a filtered krypton-bromine (Kr-Br) excilamp has ...


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No known viruses directly infecting humans and insects. Few bacteria though - not many people care about sick insects. Yersinia pestis causes plague in humans (and some other mammals) and in the Oriental rat flea can block the foregut - but I dont know how bad that is for the flea. There are some similar genera (groups) of bacteria in and on both hosts; ...


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The iris can contract and relax to control the opening of the pupil in order to restrict the amount of light entering the eyes. When the environment is bright, the pupil constricts, when the surrounding is dim, it dilate to allow more light to enter the eyes.


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This is a great biological question! It asks a lot about how empirical science is done in the field of modern biology! I'm glad we encourage such questions from curious people who want to learn more. There is another paper here that discusses using a similar frequency range of UVC radiation (207-222 nm) as a biocide: The biophysical reason is that, due ...


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Many sources say that it does. See the word "horripilation", for instance. Or no less an authority than Shakespeare, who tells us I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood, Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres, Thy knotted and combined locks to part And each particular hair to stand on ...


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Every year we have a risk of cancer. With enough rolls of the dice they will come up snake eyes. That said, https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/incidence/age#collapseZero highlights an interesting issue. The incidence of cancer increases greatly from birth to seventies, then decreases. If you are being optimistic enough ...


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This pathway makes more sense when viewed in an evolutionary context. Many other animals experience induced ovulation, where various stimuli associated with copulation triggers the release of the egg. For example, in fish and cats, the male may bite the back of the female's neck to help induce ovulation. Whatever stimuli are received, they are pieced ...


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Some graphs about the ovarian cycle mention only the follicular phase and luteal phase, and the ovulation just as a point in time, not a phase, for example, here: Source: Differencebetween.com In this case, the LH surge starts in the follicular phase and peaks at ovulation or shortly before it. Some other graphs also show the "periovulatory" phase (or "...


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