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This is just a confusion of English. "Supplied" is a bit of a weird term to use, I agree, due to the direction of information flow, but feel free to substitute in just "connected to". It seems pretty common to use this word, for example Wikipedia says: A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by afferent nerve fibres from ...


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Short answer The current consensus is that hair cells in the cochlea of humans do not regenerate spontaneously. Background I took the liberty to show the linked paper to a colleague of mine. This guy has been doing histology on the inner ear for his entire professional career. He pointed out that the consensus is that in mammals, cochlear hair cells do not ...


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Is it true that recanalisation of the vas deferens, if any, tends to happen soon after a vasectomy Yes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175481/: Studies have shown that early recanalization usually occurs between 2 and 6 weeks post-vasectomy [9, 10]. Early failure, defined as a postoperative semen analysis showing persistent motile sperm, ...


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People were investing in stones originally, and probably a lot of other materials, investing in sticks, water, grains, roots, fashion, but we can only find the stones, essentially they invested time in stones, already 3.3 million years ago: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_technology Perhaps your text should be precise, to say what you mean, the ...


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One article suggests that NTEs in kidneys are important for regulating NaCl concentrations, whereby if increasing concentrations of NaCl are sensed in inner medullary collecting duct cells transcription of the building blocks of NTEs are increased to decrease this NaCl. If NTEs are inhibited due to being irreversibly bonded with moieties of organophosphates ...


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A monograph from a pharmacopeia gives a good starting point for active pharmaceutical ingredient characterization. AFAIK there is no monograph for hCG nor your actual peptide of interest, but there is one for FSH (here for the european pharmacopeia monograph), which shares a subunit with CGA, meaning that modifications of it could suffice (though validating ...


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As with any evolutionary "why" question, most any answer will likely involve some speculation. But we can still think about what we do know in relation to the question. First, lets think about thermogenesis in humans. As your questions mentions, humans move to stay warm. This is because the conversion of chemical energy (in the form of ATP) into ...


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Actually, the body is able to warm itself by using uncouping protein 1 (UP1) and other physiological methods The coupling in uncoupling is referred to the relation between the protein gradient and the synthesis of ATP (biological energy currency). UCP1 creates an alternative channel for the protons to pass. This protons have energy that, when not used to ...


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There is a comprehensive 2012 review of the development of the mammary gland by Macias and Hinck which covers the poster’s question(s). I shall try to summarize the points they make regarding the development of alveoli and their role in milk secretion, ‘borrowing’ two of their illustrations to do so. Development of mammary gland and role of hormones At ...


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I just read about John B. Calhoun's mouse utopia experiments in an interesting history stackexchange post. The basic result is that when mice are given unlimited resources but constrained by space, their population does initially explode but this leads to a loss of social cohesion and thence to plummeting population levels. While far from conclusive, this ...


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There are a few things which can lead to miscommunication regarding the potency of acoustic weapons, but there are two main things to consider: source levels and duration. Most organisms can tolerate loud sounds, within reason, for a short period of time. However, no matter how short, at certain levels acoustic weapons can cause temporary or permanent ...


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As @John already pointed out, efficiency of digestion can be assumed to decrease in case of extreme uptake of excessive calories. (diarrhea) In terms of the excretory system: Proteins are generally strongly retained by the kidneys, while glucose famously could leave the body through urine (diabetes) but should be taken up by your cells under normal ...


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