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Preamble The question suggests unfamiliarity with the nature of biochemical oxidations and their relation to energy transfer in biology. The naïve reader is recommended to consult a text for a coverage of this subject: all I feel is appropriate here is a general summary followed by a brief indication of the key reactions. General principles of energetic ...


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Can diet, supplements, drugs or exercise improve masculine characteristics in men and feminine characteristics in women? Exercise Exercise can result in an increase of muscle mass and loss of fat (increased hip/waist ratio), but not in a significant increase of bone thickness - only 1-2 mm increase was observed in one study in tennis players (American ...


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To correct the article you referenced the neural tube closure normally occurs by the fourth week of pregnancy (28th day after conception). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279093/ The Brainstem is comprised of three parts: Medulla (Melincephalon) The Pons (Metincephalon) The Midbrain (Mesencephalon) During fetal development the brainstem ...


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Not within the next two decades, at least (assuming you meant nearly total reversal of the effects of physiological aging). Any further than that is impossible to predict, since we are likely only a few breakthroughs away at this point (however, with extremely bad luck, these could take centuries to achieve, since presumably no scientist knows the 'optimal ...


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Not exactly. However, assuming that we will eventually be able to reverse the effects of aging, cancer formation will become much more rare as a by-product. The explanation for this is a bit involved, due to the complexity of the subject. One of the most fundamental processes that drive human aging is the irreversible accumulation of genomic (and ...


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From presentations made by oncologists at a cancer survivors support group at MDAnderson ; chances are very high the young people will get some HPV by age 20. The upside is that of the 50+ strains of HPV only a few cause cancers : but why take any chance on cancer ? Another upside is there is now data that the vaccine works : It took time to show results ...


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A lot of sexually active adults carry one or another strain of HPV but most do not develop cancer. You can carry HPV — and spread it to others — without showing any symptoms yourself: HPV infections are so common that nearly all men and women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. Most people never know that they have been ...


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According to Reverse Cholesterol Transport: Molecular Mechanisms and the Non-medical Approach to Enhance HDL Cholesterol (Frontiers in Physiology, 2018), both HDL and LDL are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In short: HDL takes cholesterol from the blood (from lipid-laden macrophages) and delivers it to the liver 1) via scavenger receptors (SR-B1)...


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The question are there alleles on the y chromosomes is unclear. Here are two possible things you might mean Is there genetic variation among individuals on the y chromosomes Is there anything functional on the Y chromosome Is there genetic variation among individuals on the y chromosomes Yes, of course, there is genetic variation of the Y chromosome ...


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There are many hundreds, if not thousands, of measles genomes sequenced. A search on the NCBI Nucleotide Database for "measles" "complete genome" pulls up hundreds of hits (May 2019). Modern sequencers can completely sequence a measles genome in a matter of hours. With modern approaches, genome sequencing is so trivial that it's rarely published as such. ...


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Summary Many genomic sequences are available for measles virus. For example, a recent paper reports the sequencing of the RNA genomes (not DNA) of six different strains of measles virus: Phan et al. “Complete Genome Sequences of Six Measles Virus Strains” Genome Announc. 2018 Mar; 6(13): e00184-18 This is just an announcement with details of how to access ...


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Blood type A has a variety of subtypes, which have different features in terms of their antigens. This leads to people with different A subtypes having somewhat different kinds of antibodies in their blood (for a technical article, see here). I don't know the population prevalences well, but I read somewhere (can't find it now) that as many as 20% of blood ...


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Drinking urine could help you stay hydrated a bit longer, maybe a day, but only when you are well hydrated at the start. You could get about 0.5-1 liter extra water this way. This doesn't work anymore when you start drinking urine the 2nd or 3rd day without water - the amount of urine will be very small and will be too concentrated at that time. A man, ...


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For a very rough upper bound you could assume that the punch force is translated into 100% pressure on the bone, 100% traction on tendons/ligaments (and generally all tissues which contain collagene type 1 and aren't bone) and so on (which is obviously not true in reality where a punch from the side will generate a torque moment rather than a pressure). The ...


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The muscle responsible for being able to raise both eyebrows is one and the same (m. occipitofrontalis). You can not raise one eyebrow because the whole muscle is connected to both eyes. It is possible that one side is not connected or less connected but that's usually not the case and such a person would not be able to raise both eyebrows at will. What ...


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Let me give a answer that is more intuitive, without considering other factors. Blood is pumped by your heart to arteries then to capillaries then to veins then back to heart. It is easy to transfer fluids through big tubes like arteries, but is is hard to "squeeze" fluid through capillaries since there is a lot of resistance. So when the heart pump once, ...


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There is no clear-cut line between "synthetic" and "natural" substances. They are made from the same kinds of atoms using the same kinds of covalent, ionic, and other types of bonds. The fact that a substance MAY be produced by some organism by biological processes does not make it any different from the same substance made in a laboratory by a human ...


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Yes, these are different measures, and agreeably confusing. The "more than 99%" figure refers to pairwise distance. This figure (actually 99.9%) means that if you were to line up the 3 billion nucleotides of DNA from of any two people, on average, 1 in 1000 of these nucleotides would be different. Among siblings, this number would be even smaller. The 50% ...


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The tendon and muscle attachment are not the same. In your example, both are affected, so they are described separately. A muscle extends into a tendon and this into an enthesis - an actual attachment site where the muscle is attached to the bone (PubMed).


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(my comment reiterating the answer seemed useful, so I've reproduced it here) There are "NMDA receptors" in our body. There is not NMDA naturally in our body*. "NMDA receptor" is just a name people gave to one of the receptors that normally binds glutamate. They could have called it something else, like the "slow glu receptor", or "Glutamate Receptor A", ...


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In short, yes, you can increase your bone mass by increasing both the bone density and thickness, but the increase may not be as great as you expect. The body frame consists of the length and thickness of your bones, and is mainly genetically determined. After age about 20, you cannot increase your bone length further, but you can increase the bone ...


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If you search for - bone growth training - bone hypertrophy athletics, - bone diameter increase, - bone strengh hunter gatherer, on google, you will find more articles than I could possibly summarise: stimulation of longitudinal bone growth and widening of the joint space (cartilage hypertrophy) occur. The possibility of bony hypertrophy as a result of ...


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The kidneys use glucose from the blood as a nutrient, so, this is the reasoning behind your source saying there is less glucose in the renal veins than in the arteries. If the renal vein contains both less of water and glucose than the renal artery, the concentration of glucose in the renal vein still be lower. This agrees with Bioninja.com.au: Blood in ...


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What is biomagnification? Biomagnification is the process by which chemical contaminants increase at a far greater rate than thermodynamics would predict. Specifically looking at organic / lipid soluble compounds. A very basic explanation is that as food is digested and the lipids are absorbed, chemical concentration (see Fugacity) within the food increases ...


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This is purely an anatomical definition: right dominant is defined as coronary circulation where the PDA (posterior descending artery) is a branch of the RCA (right coronary artery) and left dominant is defined as coronary circulation where the PDA is a branch of the LCX (left circumflex artery). The Wikipedia article on coronary circulation is a reasonable ...


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{1} greatly answers the question. Regarding the insertion location (lateral view): Note that unlike the gluteus minimus insertion, the gluteus medius insertion can also be viewed anterolaterally: Table 2 contains more detailed insertion location data: Regarding the insertion area: Gluteus maximus: Average Area, mm^2 (95% CI): 473.4 (381.0, 565.8). ...


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