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tldr; Neanderthal ancestry is roughly equally the same between the groups you mentioned. It's almost certain that the major pulse of Neanderthal admixture into non-Africans occurred very soon after the primary out of Africa event (here I am referring to the out of Africa migration which contributed towards most of the ancestry of all non-Africans today - of ...


2

Yes; she wouldn't necessarily have to be of the same species, but "mitochondrial Eve" must exist. The proof is pretty simple if you assume no one has more than one mother and that some mothers share a mother (and some other reasonable biological assumptions like the finite number of offspring). Consider all living maternal lineages at any slice of ...


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