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Depending on the class of the antigen, B cells can be activated via different mechanisms. T-independent (TI) immune response can be induced by two types of antigens, namely TI-1 and TI-2 antigen (1). TI-1 antigens are mostly lipopolysaccharides (1). They activate naive B cells by directly binding to the Toll like receptors expressed on the surface of B cells....

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