23 votes
Accepted

Can you be immune to a coronavirus?

It is hypothesized that exposure to and recovery from SARS-CoV-2 (as with other coronaviruses in humans) would generally result in short-term immunity to this strain, but we do not yet have data on ...
brazofuerte's user avatar
  • 1,582
8 votes

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In the US, infants are vaccinated against Hep B at birth and again a month or two later as well, because of the risk of maternal transmission. If the mother is known to be HepB positive, HBIG will ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
8 votes

what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

The Native Americans and smallpox First I want to note that some of the posted answers are not quite accurate. For example, smallpox ravaged the Native American population because they did not have ...
guest's user avatar
  • 81
8 votes

What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

I commented on this question, but the OP's response prompted me to think again. Here is the graph from the document that the OP linked to: Clearly what is confusing is that the parameter referred to ...
Alan Boyd's user avatar
  • 22.8k
7 votes
Accepted

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

Since another posted answer addresses HepB vaccination at least as effectively as I would have, I'll say something about first-day scheduling for BCG, which is consistent with WHO guidelines (emphasis ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,354
7 votes

What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

As Alan Boyd says, the relatively slow rise is due to gradual uptake of the injected antibody. If you deliver the antibodies by intravenous injection or another mode that allows rapid uptake (I use ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
7 votes

Can you be immune to a coronavirus?

No, you cannot be immune to the virus, if you haven't been in contact with it before. You are also not immune to the influenza viruses (flu), you just happened to not contract any of them. Simply ...
Frieke's user avatar
  • 1,127
6 votes

Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

All the body does is produce a ton of cells that can recognize single antigens. Each time you encounter pathogens, some of these naïve cells contact antigen that can activate them. The activated clone ...
CKM's user avatar
  • 8,109
6 votes
Accepted

Can you vaccinate against bacterial diseases? Are there existing vaccines for such diseases?

Of course we can - and do - vaccinate against bacterial diseases, as these are some of the dangerous infectious diseases. Among these are: Tetanus (although here the vaccination is targeted against ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
5 votes
Accepted

What animal has the strongest immune system?

Though not strictly pathogenic in nature, Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are well known to be able to recover from broad range of deadly toxins/venoms due to -- at least in part -- lethal toxin-...
theforestecologist's user avatar
5 votes

Role of Bone marrow in T- lymphocyte development?

T cells arise in the bone marrow, as that's where the common lymphoid progenitor cells are (they also give rise to B cells). However, their development and maturation - TCR gene rearrangement, ...
MattDMo's user avatar
  • 15.3k
4 votes

What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

This paper, Controlling timing and location in vaccines, explains the concept in detail. The TL:DR version is that immune response is affected by the amount of antigen that reaches lymphatic tissue, ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
3 votes

What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

The antibody levels go up, because you're adding more antibodies. The increase in antibodies isn't from the patient, it's from the injection of antiserum. The half life of IgG (the most common ...
Malhar Khushu's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Is mate choice in non-human primates MHC-dependent?

tl;dr It's messy for non-human primates too. Winternitz et al. (2017) ("Patterns of MHC‐dependent mate selection in humans and nonhuman primates: a meta‐analysis", Molecular Ecology 26(2)) review ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,354
3 votes
Accepted

Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation?

As Mowgli pointed out, a bone marrow transplant involves destroying the patient's own immune system with radiation and, essentially, replacing it with a new one from the bone marrow donor. If you did ...
divibisan's user avatar
  • 355
3 votes

When someone gets infected with influenza, and gains some immunity, is that immunity just as good as getting it from a vaccine?

Yes, infection-acquired immunity is (generally speaking†) just as good as, if not better than, getting vaccinated. Remember, the whole point of a vaccine is to simulate an infection and stimulate ...
MattDMo's user avatar
  • 15.3k
3 votes

When someone gets infected with influenza, and gains some immunity, is that immunity just as good as getting it from a vaccine?

Natural infections almost always yield a better immunity than that acquired through vaccination. However, vaccines yield a better immune-response than getting infected with influenza. That is so to ...
m4rio's user avatar
  • 815
3 votes

What happens if a circulating naive B cell is met with a polysaccharide/lipid antigen?

Depending on the class of the antigen, B cells can be activated via different mechanisms. T-independent (TI) immune response can be induced by two types of antigens, namely TI-1 and TI-2 antigen (1). ...
Leading Biology's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Help with understanding XKCD's “How Vaccine Failure due to Viral Vector Immunity Works” Why is this response a failure exactly?

Yes, the cartoon is a description of immune action. Traditionally shown is first exposure being a vaccine, and the second exposure being the bad virus being destroyed. However, this cartoon is ...
Polypipe Wrangler's user avatar
3 votes

Do Tardigrades have an innate immune system, or any type of immune protection?

I could not find any data on their surival following an infection compared to uninfected individuals. I could not find a proper description of their immune effectors either. However, I would be very ...
CaroZ's user avatar
  • 414
2 votes

Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation?

Bone marrow transplant requires to first destroy the pre-existing immune system with chemotherapy and/or radiations. So essentially you would not have the first immune system and my guess is that yes, ...
Mowgli's user avatar
  • 1,929
2 votes

Bird diversity and the avian flu

Biodiversity is the opposite of monoculture, and we know that one possible consequence of monoculture is disease transmission -- bananas being the modern poster child for monoculture leading to ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
2 votes

Would "Pox Parties" of the young/healthy (while isolating the vulnerable) be an effective method of combating the COVID-19 outbreak?

This is a proposed/tentative answer only... Statements from official public health sources could be summarized as: older people and those with certain pre-existing health conditions including ...
Anthony X's user avatar
  • 187
2 votes

Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

I can't think of any pathogenic organisms that are completely resistant to the immune system. Some bacteria that cause chronic diseases (e.g. tuberculosis) are relatively resistant, and a handful of ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
2 votes
Accepted

What does the decline of serum antibodies after infection mean for B cell immunity, exactly?

The decline in serum antibody level after vaccination means the level of spike protein specific T cells declines, in another word, the virus is eliminated [1]. When the vaccine introduced a viral ...
Leading Biology's user avatar
2 votes

Help with understanding XKCD's “How Vaccine Failure due to Viral Vector Immunity Works” Why is this response a failure exactly?

Viral vector only serves to deliver to cells the proteins/mRNAs necessary for triggering the immune response. In this sense it is like a Trojan horse - it is not supposed to cause suspicion, since ...
Roger V.'s user avatar
  • 3,852
2 votes

Can bottlenecked potato immunity defence be increased with knockouts?

This sounds to me like a CRISPR approach used to create S (blight susceptibility) gene knockouts that are then screened for blight resistance, though it's a little hard to know for sure due to the ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
1 vote

How close is the U.S. to herd immunity, assuming long-term immunity?

The CDC estimates R0 to be 2.5, meaning that (2.5-1)/2.5=60% of the population must be immune to achieve herd immunity. (That is, under 60% immune and the # of cases will increase; over 60% immune and ...
Paul Draper's user avatar
1 vote

Can you vaccinate against bacterial diseases? Are there existing vaccines for such diseases?

Vaccine works by instructing our immune system to recognize and fight against infectious agent (pathogen), so it can be virus, bacteria or any other microorganism. Particles from particular pathogen ...
Twinkle Sheen's user avatar
1 vote

Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

Vaccinating the mother or a breastfeeder to provide immunization for the baby through breastfeeding is not proven nor recommended by health authorities. If a mother is vaccinated intramuscularly or ...
David Múzquiz's user avatar

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible