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Yes, the cartoon is a description of immune action. Traditionally shown is first exposure being a vaccine, and the second exposure being the bad virus being destroyed. However, this cartoon is describing viral vector immunity. The first exposure is a viral vaccine. This alerts and educates the immune system about not just the intended antigen, but also the (...


2

Viral vector only serves to deliver to cells the proteins/mRNAs necessary for triggering the immune response. In this sense it is like a Trojan horse - it is not supposed to cause suspicion, since otherwise it fails. In this case the immune system recognizes the vector as a dangerous virus, destroing it before it delivers its load. I find this xkcd rather ...


2

The decline in serum antibody level after vaccination means the level of spike protein specific T cells declines, in another word, the virus is eliminated [1]. When the vaccine introduced a viral particle or mRNA into the cell, SARS-CoV-2-specific CDH4+ T cells recognize 2 variant spike proteins, helping B cells to secrete antibodies and activating cytotoxic ...


1

This cartoon imagines that, rather than sacking Troy, the Greek soldiers inside were planning to help the Trojans recognize dangerous aliens who were preparing to attack. The horse represents the viral vector that carries the genetic material for producing the antigens that the immune system needs to learn to detect. The vaccine fails because the Trojans ...


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Depending on the class of the antigen, B cells can be activated via different mechanisms. T-independent (TI) immune response can be induced by two types of antigens, namely TI-1 and TI-2 antigen (1). TI-1 antigens are mostly lipopolysaccharides (1). They activate naive B cells by directly binding to the Toll like receptors expressed on the surface of B cells....


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In Janeway it's being said without further explanation (I will edit and add reference) that B-cells and macrophages "become targets" of cytotoxic T-cells after these killer cells have become activated, have been primed. However, this answers your question only if presentation on MHCII (not I) implies that presentation on MHCI has occurred as well....


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