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Welcome to SE. The immune response can be divided into two major compartments innate and adaptive. Your question has more to do with the latter part of the system. The adaptive immune system consists of lymphocytes (namely B cells and T cells) which can recognize self and foreign molecules within the body. The B cells are capable of going through a reaction ...


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Following technquies are used for developing fully human monoclonal antibodies: Complementarity-determining region (CDR) engraftment: This method is performed by preparing cDNA library. CDRs are amplified from a mouse hybridoma cell line, and later these sequences are engineered into the human variable light and heavy chains. Using transgenic mice with ...


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I found this small article that seems to cover all your questions: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/human-monoclonal-antibody Summary: Being considered a human monoclonal (many of the identical antibody, as opposed to different antibodies for the same target) antibody does not mean it is produced by a human body; it means that ...


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Cytokines which are produced by effector T4-helper lymphocytes helps activated B-lymphocytes to proliferate and produce clones. So, even if limited B-lymphocytes may have an antibody molecule able to bind particular epitope, still many cells are produced with the this specificity. This is clonal expansion (https://i.stack.imgur.com/3OlfJ.jpg) Link for ...


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B cells can secrete antibody before they are terminally differentiated into plasma cells, so there is a phase during which both membrane-bound and secretory antibodies can be produced by the same cell: When a naïve or memory B cell is activated by antigen (with the aid of a helper T cell), it proliferates and differentiates into an antibody-secreting ...


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Once B cell starts secreting soluble antibodies, it is no longer a B cell, it is called a plasma cell hence normal B cells do not secrete soluble antibodies before becoming plasma cells. It is the BCR that is secreted. B cells can either differentiate into memory or plasma cells. Plasma cells produce soluble antibody molecules closely modeled after the ...


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While I don't know about polio specifically, some diseases do require "booster shots" as the initial immunity can be "forgotten" by the immune system*. For instance, it's recommended to get a tetanus booster shot every 10 years or so. But with other diseases, immunity apparently lasts for life. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booster_dose *This is ...


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