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Depending on the class of the antigen, B cells can be activated via different mechanisms. T-independent (TI) immune response can be induced by two types of antigens, namely TI-1 and TI-2 antigen (1). TI-1 antigens are mostly lipopolysaccharides (1). They activate naive B cells by directly binding to the Toll like receptors expressed on the surface of B cells....


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According to this paper, fixation of an antigen presenting cell refers to the exposure of antigen presenting cells to paraformaldehyde prior to immunostaining. This treatment is used to aggregate membrane proteins and strengthen the intercellular transient protein-protein interaction. Resource Barisas BG, Wade WF, Jovin TM, Arndt-Jovin D, Roess DA. Dynamics ...


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I believe in the article you provided it is stated that the function of MHC class II molecules on activated CD4+ T cells is still unclear. It is believed that these MHC class II molecules-presenting T cells have potential ability to act as antigen presenting cells and induce immune response by activating other T cells. They are also capable of inducing down-...


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Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are human blood products purified from the plasma from many healthy donors. These are natural proteins that your body normally makes to help you to fight infections and to serve other functions for the immune system. In addition, all immunoglobulins are screened to eliminate the possibility of carrying pathogens or other ...


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“Is this not toxic for the body since it is killing your own cells? ” Yes, cytotoxic T cells do kill mRNA vaccine-transfected cells, but not to the extent of harming your body. This is because the mRNA vaccine cannot be not integrated into the host genome, mRNA then will be degraded after translation within hours, preventing spike proteins variants to be ...


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You don't do this before the fusion, you do it afterwards. First you make the hybridoma cells, which are then seeded as single cells into multiwell plates and cultivated to get enough cells for testing and further culture. This way you get only one antibody type produced per well (which is coming from a single clone, hence it is monoclonal) which then can be ...


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The gene of your interest (gene that encodes the antigen in this case) would be inserted into the transgene plasmid [1]. The envelope plasmid codes for G glycoprotein from a different virus, commonly vesicular stomatitis virus [2]. You can check this paper out for more details about the design of non-integrating lentivirus.


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I suspect it has to do with the fact that since the camelid scAbs are expressed in vivo, they undergo the normal recombination and affinity maturation process there as individual variable regions. Thus, one can easily isolate high-affinity scAb mRNAs from the blood of a suitably-immunized camelid and proceed with cloning and production. Human heavy chains ...


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