107

At the moment, there is very little scientific literature about this, but I found two papers that address the problem and are fairly easy to understand. You can find them in the references. Reference 1 is probably the most interesting and is the basis for this answer. Edit: It is also interesting to read reference 2 on the origin of SARS-CoV-2; the article ...


47

Can someone die of the common cold? No. The common cold is a clinical syndrome restricted to upper respiratory tract involvement. By clinical syndrome, I mean it is the constellation of symptoms (rather than the consequence of a specific pathogen). As you mention, these symptoms are the result of the immune response, rather than tissue damage or ...


36

This is a great biological question! It asks a lot about how empirical science is done in the field of modern biology. I'm glad we encourage such questions from curious people who want to learn more. One can't easily separate ethics from how biology is done, as much as some people have tried. (Though I suppose some have made bioethics into a separate and ...


21

If you need more [counter]evidence, there's a newer paper "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2" by Andersen et al. (March, 17) that touches on the same topic. The paper brings up two reasons why SARS-CoV-2 is not "made in a lab". The first is the (relative) [in]efficiency of its spike protein; the second is somewhat more complex to explain ...


18

Yes, Dr Barry Marshall self administered Helicobacter pylori to investigate whether it causes stomach ulcers. He won a Nobel Prize for it. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barry_Marshall


11

All the time! For example Flucamp does research on influenza, rhinovirus and (non-SARS) coronaviruses, that involves deliberate infection of paid volunteers. When the trial starts, we only inoculate them with a weak cold or flu virus so the body can fight this off without a high level of risk, before monitoring the disease cycle as they go from healthy ...


10

The common cold is not the result of a single virus. Over 200 viruses can cause a cold, so specific symptoms could vary depending on the virus in question. However, in the absence of an immune response, the virus is may destroy bodily tissues as it completes its life cycle of infecting a cell, using the host cell machinery to replicate its genome, and ...


5

Julius Wagner-Jauregg, an Austrian psychiatrist, while investigating fever to cure forms of insanity (pyrotherapy), infected his patients with malaria. This triggered an immune response that cured neurosyphilis. He was given the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1927. Sources: Tsay, Cynthia J. "Julius Wagner-Jauregg and the legacy of malarial therapy for the ...


5

The WHO guidelines for VHF victims (Ebola etc.) do say that they should be buried in body bags, and if those are not available, in plastic sheeting. If body bags are not available, wrap the body in two thickness of cotton cloth and soak with 1:10 bleach solution. Then wrap the body in plastic sheeting. Seal the wrapping with plastic tape. Spray the ...


5

A conclusive proof of CoV2's artificial origin would be finding lab records or samples dated before the epidemic, or finding an obvious unique marker sequence in the cDNA. To date there is no such conclusive proof. All other "proofs" I have seen are just hypotheses, and they all can be explained by natural processes too. In fact, if your opponents refuses ...


5

Possibly? I note that the body of your question refers to bacteria as well as viruses. The following review discusses the antimicrobial effects of amphipathic bile salts, including a detergent-like mechanism: Urdaneta V, Casadesus J. 2017. Interactions between bacteria and bile salts in the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tracts. Front Med 4:163. Bile ...


4

To answer your question, consider why soap is effective against bacteria and viruses. The chemistry of detergents allows them to interrupt the lipid layer that surrounds cells and some viruses. Viral envelopes, in particular, tend to be composed of host-derived phospholipids and proteins. So, if an organism were to synthesize a detergent to fight off a ...


3

I have not found texts relevant to your question and related to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, here is a publication that discusses the utility of contact duration data when constructing infection models, in the general case -- Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference attendees Methods At a conference, ...


3

My question concerns the way that $d$ enters the SIR model, because I find it not so plausible: to consider all persons that are infected today and take a fraction $ν$ of them that will have recovered tomorrow. Well, it is in fact not very 'realistic' as you point out, but in the assumptions of the model, we see that the population has no ...


2

Operation Whitecoat, a research program run by the US Army, used enlisted men who had registered as conscientious objectors and volunteered for the program. The research investigated defenses against possible biological weapons, testing vaccines and antibiotics on these volunteers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Whitecoat


2

It used to be fairly common to do this with prison inmates. The inmates would be asked to volunteer, motivated by some reward such as earlier release. An example of this type of study is a 1954 experiment by Rendtorf in which prisoners were given Giardia spores in order to determine the minimum amount that could cause disease. For a description, see Rose ...


2

After trying to answer this for a while, I've reached the conclusion that the information needed to answer it satisfactorily doesn't exist. I'll go ahead and summarize my findings here for you though, hopefully it's informative. Different viruses infect different cells, and different people's immune systems are more or less successful at limiting infection, ...


2

This is a great biological question! It asks a lot about how empirical science is done in the field of modern biology! I'm glad we encourage such questions from curious people who want to learn more. This is called the Independent Action Hypothesis, described here: The Independent Action Hypothesis (IAH) states that pathogenic individuals (cells, spores, ...


1

From the Wikipedia page about the British Common Cold Research Unit, which operated from 1946 to 1989: Thirty volunteers were required every fortnight during trial periods. The unit advertised in newspapers and magazines for volunteers, who were paid a small amount. A stay at the unit was presented in these advertisements as an unusual holiday ...


1

I am not sure if I quite understand your question, but I think your problem is here: removal (and your d) is a rate (time/removal). It does not matter what time you choose; a day, a week, a year, as long as you adjust your c (which is /time) to same timescale. In other words, if you wish to use d over several days, you need to calculate your contacts over ...


1

Your question contains the word "efficient". The most efficient method is the one with achieves the goal with the minimum of effort or disadvantages. And that totally depends on what you want to do exactly. If you have a surface like a lab bench, you use ethanol or iso-propanol because its cheap, quick, relatively safe to use for that purpose and dries up ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible