Questions tagged [infectious-diseases]

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Skin Infection. Skin Parasites [closed]

I'm almost positive I'm experiencing some type of skin fungus infection. I've done some research on my symptoms and Morgellons keeps popping up. When I questioned my doctor about it she said nothing, ...
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How are latence period and duration of infectiosity defined?

I assume that infectiosity of an individual is not a binary property but a quantity that grows and decays gradually, very much like the number of infected or infectious individuals in a population. ...
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Did most pandemics originate from Asia/China?

This question may be on the borderline of well-posed-ness. Let me ask it. Then please tell me if or where it can be improved. Is it statistically true that the majority of the pandemics or epidemics ...
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38 views

Why are diseases generally specific to a particular species

"Zoonosis" is the process of transmitting a disease from an infected animal to a human. This suggests that animal-to-human transmission is not common. HIV is believed to have first spread to humans ...
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How to model social structure in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. More details in this question at Mathematics SE: How does the reproduction number depend on characteristics of the physical contact graph of a population? The ...
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The role of duration of contact in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. The basic SIR model - as described in Jones' Notes - considers three factors that make up the reproduction number: $\tau$ = the transmissibility (i.e., ...
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161 views

The role of duration of infectiousness in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. The basic SIR model - as described in Jones' Notes - considers three factors that make up the reproduction number: $\tau$ = the transmissibility (i.e., ...
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1answer
65 views

Do we know if dogs are asymptomatic transmiters of sars-cov-2?

Dogs do not use mask when going for a walk nor they observe the security distance. On the contrary, they frequently join their noses, and put their noses where other dogs had put them before or had ...
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35 views

Because we don't live as closely to livestock, are we at a greater or lesser risk of plagues?

Give recent events, some people have called for the 'wet markets' in China to be shut down, (for many reasons) but largely because it is likely the source of the recent plague outbreak, due to the ...
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1answer
37 views

How is the carrying capacity of a logistic growth model calculated?

I am reading a book in epidemiology where the carrying capacity for a standard logistic growth rate is given by K = (b - delta) / gamma where: ...
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17 views

How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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94 views

Why does the SARS-CoV2 virus not remain infectious forever? Or does it?

Given that the majority of biologists do not currently consider viruses to be alive, a virus can never die. It can, however, get destroyed by long exposures to soapy water, alcohol, and apparently ...
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101 views

Can swarming locusts act as a vector for any human pathogens?

What human pathogens can the locusts currently swarming in Africa act as a vector for? E.g. can the locust swarm 'become a reservoir for' SARS-CoV-2? Measles? Ebola?
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39 views

Are specific primers or detectors, or both, used in COVID-19 tests?

I am trying to learn about the rRT-PCR testing procedure used to test for COVID-19, but I am slightly confused on one point. Are highly specific primers used with a non-specific detector, or are ...
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1answer
58 views

How likely is to develop an infection from a single virion entering a single cell? [closed]

Is there any research (including mathematical or computational modelling) regarding how likely it is to infect an organism starting from a single virion entering a single cell? I am interested in any ...
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Can an infectious diseases come from a plant?

Coronavirus, HIV, 1918 Flu, etc. They all come from animals. Do any infectious diseases (in humans) come from plants? More specifically, are there viruses that infect plants that can mutate to infect ...
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Do we know of any “species ending bugs”?

Are we aware of a "bug" (virus, bacterium, prion, ...) that has completely exterminated an entire species? Either through direct observation or maybe some form of archeological evidence? If not, are ...
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58 views

Are there any documented instances of coronaviruses being directly transmitted from bats to humans?

Many human coronaviruses have ancestral host origins in species of bat. However, all instances I am aware of identified other animals as intermediary vectors: SARS-CoV: Human ← Palm Civet / Raccoon ← ...
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1answer
38 views

What is the formula to calculate $R_0$ (basic reproduction number)?

What is the mathematical formula for $R_0$ and what does each variable represent? I have tried searching this to no avail.
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1answer
88 views

Is COVID-19 more deadly than swine flu?

I have a question about the novel coronavirus and swine flu. How do the death rates compare between the two diseases? How do the transmissions and rate of transmission compare? Was a vaccine ...
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120 views

What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Is a nightly curfew an effective intervention strategy for limiting the spread of an infectious disease? [closed]

The governing bodies of several geographic areas hit by disease outbreaks will sometimes impose a nightly curfew on their citizens, restricting or limiting the ability of their citizens from going ...
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1answer
572 views

Difference between aerosol and droplet transmission for airborne diseases

I've been doing some pandemic reading and can't find why there is a distinction between transmission by aerosols and by droplets. Some articles give a size cutoff of 5 microns; how is that important? ...
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33 views

How is someone being tested positive for corona virus? [duplicate]

How is it determined that someone is infected with corona virus ? It is my searching for matching DNA sequences of the virus in our cells or is their some other way.
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144 views

Examples of healthy lifelong asymptomatic carrier of a severe infectious disease?

I am curious, is there any known disease/infection that is very severe normally (patient suffers greatly and die easily without medical treatment), but ends up having little to no effect on the lives ...
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Why do gram-negative bacteria attack the digestive system more than gram-positive ones?

I was researching for a biology project on the subject of contagious infections of the digestive system (mainly the intestines) and almost all of the bacteria that came up (E.coli, Shigella, Cholera, ...
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From a hosts point of view, which comes first, effect of toxins on pathways or identification of toxins by immune system?

From a pure biology perspective, when a pathogen (gram-negative bacteria) affects a host by secreting toxins, what comes first, the effect of the toxin on the pathways or identification of the toxin ...
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How was 2019-nCoV (Wuhan coronavirus) identified so quickly?

It seems that from the first few cases to identifying 2019-nCoV as a new disease happened very quickly. How were they able to identify this as a new disease and not an outbreak of a previously known ...
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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1answer
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How can a disease be transmissible animal-to-human but not human-to-human? [duplicate]

I have heard some debate about whether or not the Wuhan virus can be transmitted human-to-human, but this doesn't make sense to me. Why wouldn't it be able to? Are there diseases that can only be ...
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81 views

Where can I find disease diagnosis datasets?

For an epidemiological study, I'm looking for datasets for any kind of vector-borne disease (i.e. West Nile Virus, Malaria, etc.), or any parasites that are dependent on intermediate hosts (i.e. ...
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1answer
50 views

Is PrEP used for anything other than HIV?

In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the ...
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Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
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Why aren’t PCR test recommended for Herpes testing?

CDC does not recommend testing for Herpes, due to its inability to change patient’s sexual behavior and it’s high false-positive rate (https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/screening.htm). According to ...
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Why is synthesis of tetanospasmin advantageous to C. tetani?

The tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin synthesised by some strains of C. tetani. It is the factor causing tetanus, but what is its role for the bacteria itself? I do not believe the main objective of C. ...
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Are most pathogenic bacteria facultative anaerobes?

I know that S. aureus and most gram-negative rods are facultative anaerobes. In terms of number of species, are most human pathogen-associated bacteria facultative anaerobes?
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What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
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296 views

what will be the effect of cockroach bite?

I know the cockroaches are creepy for humans. But I want to know why humans are afraid of cockroaches and what will be the effect of there bite on my body. Can I touch them or if they walk over my ...
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Viability of Toxoplasmosis oocysts on dry smooth surfaces

This is a weird question. My wife is terrified of contracting toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and I was hoping I could get an expert opinion here to potentially make her feel better. She recently ...
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Risks of latent viruses that reside in ancient genomes under research?

Some interesting research in reactivating mammoth genetic material (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40546-1) made me wonder what risks are inherent (or are not inherent) in reviving older ...
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Influenza infections and drug design

Why is the neuraminidase used as a target for drugs against influenza virus instead of haemagglutinin? Is there some basic reason that this will make a more effective drug?
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Can endemic diseases be acute?

Diseases can be classified as :endemic ,or pandemic,...etc. An endemic disease is an infectious disease which is generally or constantly found among people in a particular area. Disease conditions ...
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240 views

We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
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A study found that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for six weeks. Did they end the study before the seventh week began?

A study once found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy clinicians. What happened ...
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Why are vaccines containing attenuated microorganisms preferable to those containing dead microorganisms instead?

My teacher said it more closely resembles a real infection but I didn't get that.
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184 views

Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
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1answer
388 views

can one be infected with Naegleria fowleri by taking Steam?

will Naegleria fowleri be present in the steam molecules. Many people take steam from hot water to get relief from sinus. I read somewhere that Naegleria fowleri gets killed over 70 C. So steam will ...
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115 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
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55 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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1answer
105 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...