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Some can First the terms you are looking for is biocompatibility and bioactivity. The study of them is called biomaterial science. Both fields are relatively new so complete answers do not exist, there has been a certain amount of trial and error in find suitable materials. There are a dozen factors that go into these things, toxicity, whether they ...


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As far as I know "surgical steel" for cutting tools is never used for implants . And, reactions to metals are mostly allergys. Surgical steels are martensitic ( hard) chrome stainless , eg 440 A, B, C, and 420. Some surgical tools are 316 stainless which is also used for implants. Better implants are made of titanium usually with a titanium oxide surface ; ...


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Your question is very complex, so for now I'll focus on a few points and answer these first: Why hasn't there been visible progress on a gene-blocking approach? There are all sorts of ways to block them - find all the proteins and other products that promote or cause inflammation, then consider all sorts of options to stop them. Options including blocking ...


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An brunt force (trauma) may destroy cells and tissues by mechanical action. It simply squashes them. Cells contain different kinds of chemical substances in specific cellular organelles. The most important in this context are enzymes from lysozyme. Once enzymes are released (by squashing the cell) they induce irritating reactions to other cells and ...


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TL;DR: It originally referred to abnormality in "secretion" by the inflamed tissue and later became used to mean any abnormality at all. This fifth cardinal symptom of inflammation seems to be rather mythological as laid out in detail by Rather (1971, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1749862/?page=3). This source explains that the term seems to ...


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Your question led me to: Pinals, RS (1988) Sulfasalazine in the Rheumatic Disease. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17:246-259. I reproduce the introduction to this paper below: Most physicians are familiar with sulfasalazine (SSZ) as an agent commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease for more than 40 years. In 1978, McConkey et al reported ...


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Inflammations are non specific defense reactions instigated on cell injuries. Inflammation reactions are characterised by certian physical changes that are inturn caused by physiological changes. The physical changes are: pain heat redness swelling loss of function Here the redness is caused due to vasodilation of the nearby blood vessels (mostly ...


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From PubMed Health: When a wound swells up, turns red and hurts, it may be a sign of inflammation. Inflammation is – very generally speaking – the body’s immune system’s response to stimulus. This can be bacteria colonizing a wound or a splinter piercing your finger, for example. Inflammation happens when the immune system fights against something that ...


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This review 22 proteins in the NOD like human repetoire. It was published in 2013... The families are broken down into 9 general groups according to their domain composition in Figure 1 from that review. Most of them are not named "NOD".


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The mechanism is likely very straightforward. Activated macrophages already in the area are releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, MIP-2, etc. These are not only important for granuloma formation, but they also recruit other immune cells to the area. However, since cord factor has this anti-migratory effect, once the cells get ...


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According to this paper the virus triggers the innate immune system and induces inflammatory cytokines as well as interferon stimulated genes (which is a response to a viral infection). It seems to be recognized by the cells via the Toll-like receptor 2 and CD14, which subsequently trigger the cytokine production. A schematic view comes from the second paper:...


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According to the two papers listed below, this is mostly done by a neutrophilic inflammatory response. The response is regulated by mechanisms of the innate immune system and is mediated by receptor like TLR2, TLR4 and SIGN-R1. Role of Dectin-2 in the host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection Dectin-2-dependent NKT cell activation and serotype-...


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There are two systemic reactions in inflammation too: mediated by leucocytes and acute-phase response (proteins).


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the inflammatory response it autoimmune reaction, thus it occurs 4 weeks after the Strep infection. please, look at the picture from the "Nature" -


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