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OK, I'll have a go although you really shouldn't combine so many questions into one. 1 The mutation protection "paradox" As already mentioned while many mutations are caught and corrected, not all of them are. You have to consider that a body (the human one, for example) contains several trillion cells, each of which contains 3 billion nucleotides each of ...


6

Thought I'd try this one too... 1) The DNA repair mechanisms in an organism can be fairly minimal ( bacteria with smaller genomes such as M genetalium do not seem to have DNA repair enzymes at all) or there can be many redundant backup genes for DNA repair (I'm thinking of D radiodurans, a bacterium found growing in the Chernobyl reactor after the disaster)....


4

Unfortunately the answer is highly dependent on what you mean. In the simplest terms, comparing it directly to how we measure data storage in digital media, the number of different states of a DNA string of length $n$ can have is simply $4^n$. A byte holds $2^8$ different states so the number of bytes in a DNA string of length $n$ is $\frac{n}{4}$. Of course,...


2

1: Not a paradox. Mutations are generally protected against, especially in more complex organisms. Protection mechanisms are not perfect, hence mutations still arise. Plus, diversity can arise through other mechanisms. 2: "...these mutations are so small they cannot be gotten rid of by natural selection, and that the vast majority are harmful..." is a ...


2

You might also be interested in this paper from EMBL-EBI about storing data on DNA. Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA They show they can get 757,051 bytes or a Shannon information 10 of 5.2 × 106 bits onto 153,335 strings of DNA, each comprising 117 nucleotides (nt). George Church had a similar paper ...


2

Preliminary Remarks Many of the posts to this list about biological information (usually equated to DNA) from mathematical and informatics scientists start from what I regard as false premises, especially that the genome is similar to that man-made artefact, the computer. This post does not explicitly make that assumption, but I think it important to ...


2

Short answer The thalamus is the most important neural station for the filtering of peripheral information to the cerebral cortex. Background Sleep is a prime example of where much, if not all, of the peripheral input ascending to the brain is filtered out. The thalamus situated in the brain stem is the major gateway for the flow of information toward the ...


2

A neuron cannot know the importance of a signal in any applied sense, that is, it can't know the difference between one triggered by a feather or one by a hammer... on an individual basis. A single neuron can however accumulate information in a number of ways, either by requiring multiple incoming triggers (filtering out localised signals, i.e. from a ...


1

DNA is a code that occurs via stepwise polymerization, like all major macromolecules. In respects to DNA, it is Nucleic Acid sequences that polymerize to create the DNA. In eukaryotic cells this happens at multiple replicons (regions of replication). So you can look DNA as code for itself. You also have rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA. All of these code for and do ...


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