18

I'd like to know what is the reference for amoebic learning. I cannot comment directly on this, but there is some evidence for "adaptive anticipation" in both prokaryotes and single-celled Eukaryotes which do not have a nervous system. In the case of E. coli, it has been shown that the bacteria can anticipate the environment it is about to enter. E. coli ...


13

Zickefoose et al. did a study, and showed that while you might improve while playing the game, it called into question if you actually improved outside of just getting better at the game. Redick et al. also reported that when they did a double blind study in brain games like Luminosity that you improved in the games, but they didn't see any transfer from ...


12

While I am not sure I buy your assertion that all mammals know how to swim, I would say that humans are at least as good as dogs when swimming. If you drop a human in water we will instinctively flap around and try too keep our head out of the water in about as elegant a way as a dog. The main problem for humans is panicking. Someone who does not know how to ...


9

It's very likely that memory is "lossy" and holographic, such that you can keep adding more information indefinitely, but retain it with less and less accuracy. Memory isn't a digital storage system with X gigabytes of capacity, and the inputs to memory aren't neat little packets. What we remember are a web of associations and patterns. Vastly ...


9

Unlike Terdon I think that you are generally correct in your assertion that animals can swim whereas humans can't (although I'm sure there are exceptions). However, I think his answer contains the real answer: Dogs can't swim as such, they simply do the same motions in the water as they do on land. There is no different action happening, they don't ...


8

In addition to the excellent response up top (by Poshpaws), one can also imagine how these systems work by looking at recent synthetic examples of single-celled organism memory. It is possible to design various bistable switches using protein pathways, RNAi, or other means that will latch a particular state. In that way, an organism could effectively "...


8

Three possible mechanisms are mentioned in the first referenced article [1]: Attentional blink - the failure to detect a (visual) stimulus [2]. Visual short-term memory - non-permanent storage of visual information over an extended period of time [3]. Psychological refractory period - the period of time during which the response to a second stimulus is ...


7

With respect to your first question, that model isn't intended to take time into account, but is based on Hebbian learning with the goal of computability. It's generally used in simple pattern recognition situations where each case has no bearing on the next. The learning portion is performed ahead of time during the training phase. For example, a ...


6

There is a very simple experiment you can do that will demonstrate that animals prioritize. Give a dog two bones. Preferably one which is more tasty than the other. Say one has more meat on it. The dog cannot eat both at once and you will observe it choosing one over the other. This is a clear example of prioritization. Again with a dog, try observing one ...


6

The storage of memories in cells is rarely thought of on the protein level of the cell. Cells are usually given a developmental state, but no memory. A cell may become a liver cell, cancerous, or diabetic, but this is not memory, but a physiological change in the cell which is usually not reversible to a previous state. For example cancer treatments are ...


5

I don't know if it is definitively the simplest, but the simplest organism with a nervous system that has been studied extensively is probably C. elegans, which is definitely able to learn. Some basic learning abilities have also been shown in amoebae. References: Ardiel, E. L., & Rankin, C. H. (2010). An elegant mind: learning and memory in ...


5

Short answer Training increases white and gray matter densities in the brain. This may reflect increases in neuronal cell counts especially in the hippocampus. In the cortex, however, such observed changes are probably more reflective of other processes, such as synaptogenesis. Background Gray matter is generally viewed as being the neuronal cell bodies, ...


4

I have had a very difficult time finding information that was well-written and what you were looking for. So, I did my best! From what I have read it takes about four months - everyone is a little bit different and some take longer! Those of us with no visual impairment that try to learn it have no advantage and maybe a slight disadvantage with learning it.....


4

Spontaneous ringing is caused by When the outer hair cells put energy back into the vibration, which is known as positive feedback. The process is meant to amplify very quiet sounds more so than loud ones. Normally this works, and you would not notice the sound. But occasionally, the amplification level of one or more outer hair cells will go awry and as a ...


4

No, neurogenesis is not necessary for learning (assuming you are talking about adult neurogenesis: of course you need to generate neurons sometime in development to even have a nervous system). Easily the most-accepted theory for learning and memory is that learning happens by changes in the strength of synapses, the connections between cells. The strengths ...


3

Very simple nervous systems are capable of learning C. elegans, with only 302 neurons, is reportedly capable of both learning and memory. There is a fairly large literature on the subject, as C. elegans is a popular research subject - a Google Scholar search gives about 40K hits, e.g. http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/17/4/191.long We have to remember ...


3

This model was a reasonable approximation when it was formulated. However, as we learn more about synaptic integration, it appears that neurons are best approximated by two-layer neural networks (1). In this way the active properties of individual dendrites are better taken into account. Each dendrite, or at least a group of dendrites, is viewed as capable ...


3

To build on busukxuan's answer, there are a lot of single-celled organism responses that kind of resemble memory: Slime mold uses an externalized spatial 'memory' to navigate in complex environments - essentially, a slime mold leaves behind a trail, which it then avoids, allowing it to avoid where it has traveled in the past. If you apply a periodic ...


2

All species of the genus Homo were able to plan stone tool manufacture in a way that suggests the ability to prioritize and follow steps to an envisioned end form.


2

If you're interested in understanding the maintenance of state, history, and information, I would look at hysteresis. The classic biophysics model for studying hysteresis has been the Lambda phage which has been extensively detailed in Mark Ptashne's A Genetic Switch


2

Campbell's Biology is, I quote my biology teacher, "the Bible of AP Biology". I know you're a medical student and therefore far past that introductory college level, but Campbell's does quite a good and thorough job of explaining a plethora of biology topics. It's a fairly reliable textbook, I think you might like it. It also gives a good deal of examples ...


2

Here's an article I found that seems to attempt to address this question, using a kind of machine-learning approach involving "Long Short-Term Memory" (LSTM)-Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), to classify EEG from participants who were watching either "easy" or "difficult" online lectures - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620019/ . It's not a ...


2

So how could it [addiction] develop? Children need to play in order to understand the structure and behaviour of the world around them. Bumping into things is a byproduct of this. This behaviour is distinct from clinical addiction. See this NHS page which covers some examples of addiction Are my conclusions wrong? As I understand it, your conclusion ...


2

No, you cannot teach a single neuron an alphabet. In general, the way the brain learns and stores information is by adjusting the strength of connections between neurons. Therefore, there is not really any information in a given neuron, but in the pattern of how it's connected to other neurons. For the example of the alphabet, there are a lot of different ...


2

Bags are not that useful if your are not human. Most primates are too small to get any benefit from it, the bags are too large and would drag on the ground or get snagged on branches, even chimps and gorilla don't have enough ground clearance to not have this problem. Primates have been known to play with plastic bags, but they would not provide much ...


1

Adjustment = a small alteration or movement made to achieve a desired fit, appearance, or result; the process of adapting or becoming used to a new situation (Google Dictionary). Adjustment is a very general term; it doesn't mean anything specific in biology or other sciences and it can cover all the terms you've mentioned: adaptation, acclimatization and ...


1

The dynamics of Hebbian or associative synaptic plasticity are thought to be governed primarily through the function of the NMDA glutamate receptor. The short answer is that you are basically right on all counts. Figure of the NMDA receptor present the nervous system. By Blanca Piedrafita [CC BY-SA 1.0 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons The NMDA ...


1

How do I score differential activity of cellular pathways in microarray data (not enrichment)? You would look at downstream genes, which are selective for individual pathways - or genes which have binding sites for transcription factors that sit at the end of your pathway. Depending on the existing literature, and your experiment, and the specific pathway, ...


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