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How many recombinations are required to achieve an active virus? The FDA has recognised the likelihood that lentivectors can be converted into actively replicating lentivirus if they undergo recombination with wild type HIV in a HIV positive patient. In this case, two recombination events are required to transfer the lentivector sequence into the HIV ...


7

In Latin, lente means slow, so lentiviruses are retroviruses that are characterized by long periods of latency. lentivirus A group of retroviruses that include human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1. They cause disease after a long incubation period. latency A state in which a virus infects a cell but does not replicate. -Janeway's Immunobiolgy, 8th Edition, ...


6

There is viral DNA within our genomes. Embedded in the genomes of all vertebrates are the proviral remnants of previous retroviral infections. It is possible that some have conferred biological benefits. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that have integrated into the germ line of their host. They are ...


4

The high mutation rate is only a small part of the reason it's hard to make vaccines against those RNA viruses. The real problem is not that they mutate rapidly, but that they can tolerate high levels of variation in their antigenic regions without losing fitness. Viruses like polio and measles, as you say, have mutation rates easily on a par with ...


3

EF1-alpha is considered a ubiquitous/constitutive promoter; it is effective in all animal cells and tends to provide strong expression. Embryonic (and other) stem cells are more difficult to target than other cells because they don't express genes under the cell-type specific promoters that are often used for other populations of cells, which is why you're ...


1

I have 2 doubts here. You obtain your viruses from the media whereas Actb measurements can be performed only in the cell lysates. Actb is just a reference to normalize for the cell count: higher the cell count higher will be the viral titre because of higher number of infected cells. But that is immaterial if your aim is lentiviral transduction where you ...


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