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36 votes
Accepted

Specific mechanism behind lethality of yellow coat color in mice

Really interesting question: The lethal yellow mutation (also abbreviated Ay) affects the agouti signalling protein which plays a major role in pigmentation. Heterozygous expression of it leads to the ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.7k
16 votes
Accepted

Can DNA be considered as a fractal antenna?

I looked at the original paper, Blank and Goodman "DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields" Int J Radiation Biology, 87:4, 409-415, DOI:10.3109/09553002.2011.538130. To be honest I can't ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,404
13 votes
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How to decipher references in natural history works of the late Renaissance and early Modernity?

I have found what may be the holy grail. It is a book known as "A Botanical Materia Medica" by Jonathan Stokes. This has several volumes, but the one you want is volume 1, which has no ...
bob1's user avatar
  • 12.5k
9 votes
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Questions on mid-2019 Covid-19 Spread in Spain

To judge about this assay, it is important to see how they worked. They used different sets of primers to analyze for SARS-CoV-2. Namely targets IP2 und IP4 from Institute Pasteur in Paris (see ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.7k
8 votes
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Will sperm cells exhibit chemotaxis towards sucrose?

If you google "sperm chemotaxis sucrose" you learn some things of interest. Notably, wikipedia's article on sperm chemotaxis indicates that the important chemoattractants for sperm (the things that ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
8 votes

A biological system to measure time

There are lots of biological clocks, or clocks made of biological components. The circadian clock is an important, though complicated, example. There are excellent engineered clocks that form some of ...
Raghu Parthasarathy's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

What is the preferred way to abbreviate amino acids?

In my experience neither is preferred. When simply presenting a protein sequence, e.g. in the context of a database of proteins encoded by a genome, then the one-letter code tends to be used. When ...
Alan Boyd's user avatar
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7 votes
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Reference request for the evolution of faces

If what you are interested in is really the evolution of heads (which I think imply faces), then cephalization is what you are looking for. Namely, when bilaterally symmetric organisms colocalize ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Why do cats meow but lions and tigers roar?

They have different vocal cords, differently-shaped pharynx. I would imagine that is all that explains the difference in sound. As to mewing versus roaring, the vocalizations you reference are not ...
Justin Masters's user avatar
6 votes

How does species diversity vs Earth total biomass relate?

I don't work in ecology, but my first thought is that I would not expect any relationship whatsoever between diversity and biomass. Biomass simply means the combined mass of all life on the planet. If ...
terdon's user avatar
  • 12.9k
6 votes

Why did Rivers replace Koch's postulates?

If you read his 1937 article, Rivers himself makes a case for why Koch's postulates are too restrictive and that all the postulates need not be satisfied to confidently associate a pathogen with a ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,326
5 votes
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Did early 20th century researchers state why they used E. coli as a model organism?

Historical Fallacies implicit in the Question “…why a researcher chose to use E. coli as a model organism.” Researchers did not work with E. coli because they regarded it as a “model ...
David's user avatar
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5 votes
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Who invented dN/dS?

In the paper you cite, we see KA and KS defined by the authors. The direct comparison between a pair of known nucleotide sequences in coding regions permits us to evaluate both the nucleotide ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,326
5 votes
Accepted

Flora and fauna of early homo sapiens environment?

It's a bit outdated, but Quézel (1978) suggests the flora of the Mediterranean region of Africa is not much different than today: It is concluded that the Mediterranean flora is relatively old and ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
5 votes
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convert bright field images to phase contrast or dic microscopy images (one of those three to any of those three)

I highly doubt it; those are imaging techniques that result from the way light interacts with an object. Faking it wouldn't be useful in the context of science as conversion won't tell you anything ...
bob1's user avatar
  • 12.5k
4 votes
Accepted

Can a chicken really be hatched outside of the egg?

Yes it is real, in the sense that this protocol has been through a peer reviewed journal. Note that the embryo is developing outside the shell, not outside the egg. It is the fertilized egg that ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
  • 35.6k
4 votes
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What is the mass of a human retina?

I did some research and I found this site : https://www.covance.com/content/dam/covance/assetLibrary/posters/StrubleEVER14.pdf It has the weight for ocular tissues for different kinds of animals ( ...
user158657's user avatar
4 votes

Global database for patients with rare and important injuries or disease?

The Undiagnosed Diseases Network is similar to what you're looking for; it's not for injuries, but rather for rare genetic diseases.
Raghu Parthasarathy's user avatar
4 votes

Global database for patients with rare and important injuries or disease?

The MatchMaker exchange project is a federated approach that allows clinicians to find matching cases based on genetic or phenotypic similarity, retaining patient confidentiality.
cmungall's user avatar
  • 291
4 votes

Did early 20th century researchers state why they used E. coli as a model organism?

Very interesting question. Did early 20th century researchers state why they used E. coli as a model organism? In short: No (at least in the 1920ies). For instance: Werkman 1927: Vitamin Effects ...
tsttst's user avatar
  • 1,597
4 votes
Accepted

Molecular psychology/psychiatry literature/articles

For the neurobiology I'd recommend to read: Mapping the Mind and The Quest for Conscioussness , but these are kind of long books. For shorter articles as (merely) an introduction, I'd recommend: ...
mpribis's user avatar
  • 736
4 votes
Accepted

True examples of common variation due to Mendelian Inheritance

Earwax consistency is an example of a monogenic trait with dimorphic phenotypes in humans -- "wet" and "dry" -- where both phenotypes are globally common, though allele ratios are highly variable ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,326
4 votes
Accepted

Why is exclusive breastfeeding recommended for 6 months only?

I guess this is the review (ISBN: 92 4 156211 0) that they are referring to. We found no objective evidence of a “weanling’s dilemma.” Infants who are exclusively breastfed for 6 months ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
  • 35.6k
4 votes
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Ion-gated ion channels

The main families of calcium-gated channels I am aware of are the calcium-gated potassium channels and the internal ryanodine receptors involved in calcium-induced calcium release - you could start ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 46.2k
4 votes

How to decipher references in natural history works of the late Renaissance and early Modernity?

I have found a database which lists some abbreviations, it's on Tropicos. But it seems quite limited in the search possibilities, for instance: looking for "Hort. ups." does not find the &...
botaflo's user avatar
  • 358
4 votes
Accepted

Largest crinoid species

Probably 40ft not 40m Without a species name any claim like this is dubious. The wiki quote is not from a primary source but a fluff book which makes it even more questionable. Unfortunately you are ...
John's user avatar
  • 14.7k
4 votes

Reading list to understand the theory of mycelium based materials for beginners

As one of the early investors in the field of mycelium based materials, I can give a brief answer. Mycelia are the underground cellular network of some fungi and bacteria. Under some conditions they ...
shigeta's user avatar
  • 28.3k
3 votes
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Are there biochemical differences between the cell membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

There are differences. (Except mitochondrial eukaryotic membranes, which are indeed similar to bacterial membranes! (reviewed in van Meer et al., 2008)). First, bare in mind that it is thought that ...
James's user avatar
  • 11.3k
3 votes

Gene expression for mathematicians: where to start?

I suppose you first need to learn the basics of genetics before investigating the stats behind gene expression clustering. I will based my recommendations on Khan Academy, that is generally speaking a ...
Remi.b's user avatar
  • 68.3k
3 votes
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Clonality of tumour cells

Most tumors are probably not strictly clonal; all cancer cells in a tumor seldom have the exact same set of mutations. Tumors tend to be subclonal, with all cancer cells having a single common ...
EdM's user avatar
  • 720

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