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Really interesting question: The lethal yellow mutation (also abbreviated Ay) affects the agouti signalling protein which plays a major role in pigmentation. Heterozygous expression of it leads to the dominant expression of pheomelanin (which is yellow), causing the mice to express this color (among other effects). To understand why it is homozygous ...


7

To judge about this assay, it is important to see how they worked. They used different sets of primers to analyze for SARS-CoV-2. Namely targets IP2 und IP4 from Institute Pasteur in Paris (see reference 1) and to validate results also primers targeting the "E" sequence (reference 2) and two against the nucleoproteins N1 and N2 (reference 3). Then ...


3

Earwax consistency is an example of a monogenic trait with dimorphic phenotypes in humans -- "wet" and "dry" -- where both phenotypes are globally common, though allele ratios are highly variable between human populations. The population genetics and molecular basis of this trait are discussed at length by Dr. John H. McDonald as part of a series on the ...


3

I have not found texts relevant to your question and related to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, here is a publication that discusses the utility of contact duration data when constructing infection models, in the general case -- Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference attendees Methods At a conference, ...


3

As a proxy for asking which bacterial proteins are membrane-bound, we can ask which proteins harbor transmembrane domains. A popular tool for detecting transmembrane domains is TMHMM, which looks for transmembrane helices in protein sequences using a hidden Markov model.1 For E. coli strain K12, UniProt reports 4,391 protein sequences corresponding to unique ...


2

The "similarity" of this specific chimera was addressed in a recent paper concerning the lack of evidence that SARS-CoV-2 is lab-grown: Another claim in Chinese social media points to a Nature Medicine paper published in 2015 [7], which reports the construction of a chimeric CoV with a bat CoV S gene (SHC014) in the backbone of a SARS CoV that has adapted ...


2

I used "Essential cell biology" by Albert et al, and then "Molecular biology of the cell" for more detail. Also by them. Experts originally from other fields contribute greatly to biology, so dont be discouraged. For self education (which I did before formal study) I recommend incremental learning based on learning everything about a drug, disease, molecule ...


1

I believe this will work: ((Acute Kidney Injury[MeSH Terms]) AND (Sodium Chloride[MeSH Terms])) NOT (Review[Publication Type]) Using the advanced search settings on PubMed it was easy enough to set up, here is the link in case you don't have it already: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/advanced/


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The reason you aren't finding this information in the literature is that this metric doesn't match the way that most genetic circuits work. You appear to be thinking about operations in genetic circuits as being like instructions on an electronic processor. In that world, an instruction starts, executes, and stops, and you can measure the amount of energy ...


1

This addresses, rather than answers, the question; but is, I think, preferable to continuing to discuss the problem in comments. As I understand it, the question deals with the use of genetic circuitry in synthetic biology to perform mathematical calculations in an analogous way to that done in computer systems. By genetic circuitry is meant the induction ...


1

Coronavirus main lineages alphacoronavirus : bats and many mammals including 229E and NL63 (ACE2), Feline-CoV, TGEV betacoronavirus : bats and many mammals, 15% similarity to the previous, need to look at the RNA polymerase and the general structure to establish a phylogenetic relation Mers (Camel) plus a bat lineage MHV, OC43, HKU1, plus a rat and a bat ...


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Diarrhoea Diarrhea is loosely defined as passage of abnormally liquid or unformed stools at an increased frequency. For adults on a typical Western diet, stool weight >200 g/d can generally be considered diarrheal. Diarrhea may be further defined as acute if <2 weeks, persistent if 2–4 weeks, and chronic if >4 weeks in duration. ~Harrison's ...


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The classic answer would be Joe Felsenstein's Inferring Phylogenies. It has substantial technical discussion of GTR and Felsenstein models, among others. However, it does not have any index entries for "general balance" or "detailed balance". I was not familiar with these terms, so I googled them and they do not appear to be common terms ...


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