11

ImageJ is all you need. Particularly see the documentation sections on setting the image scale and measuring.


7

This reference from CHEST lists 21 clinically measured peak flow rates during various modes of coughing. Of these patients, and for unassisted cough, the highest peak flow is about 4 liters/sec. The human trachea ranges from 13 to 27 mm diameter. The relationship between velocity, $V$ and flow $Q$ is $$ V=\frac{Q}{A}$$ Assume the 4 liters/sec = 4000 cm^3/...


7

This page (and many others) explain the idea rather well. This is more of a physics than a biology question, but the fundamental concepts are the same. In fact, contrary to what you wrote in the question, the measured blood pressure should be lower than expected if the arm is elevated above heart level. When you reduce the pressure on the bent pipe, the ...


6

I've only used it for mammalian work, but the Cedex HiRes Analyzer from Roche is pretty sweet. From their docs you can analyze particles from 1-90 μm in size (the cells I work with are about 20 μm), and there are a ton of configuration options depending on your needs. As long as your cells can be stained with Trypan Blue (it's been a long time since I've ...


6

As others have said, that mass is too small to measure with a standard analytical scale. There are two options you could use: Make a larger volume of your 200 ug/mL solution. Make a concentrated stock such as 20 mg/mL. This a 100X stock; you can make 1 mL of 200 ug/mL proteinase K with 10 uL of stock and 990 uL of buffer. Small volumes are easier to ...


5

About 35-40mph According to the Mythbursters who subjected this to their tests showed that their own sneezes went around 35 to 40mph. This is anecdotal since it only has a sample size of two persons, but it at least gives an indication about the speed of a sneeze.


5

Korotkoff sounds! The blood pressure measurement process is fairly cool, and goes like this. Inflate the cuff to well over plausible blood pressures (250mmHg or so). Slowly deflate the cuff while listening to the artery. When you start to hear sounds, that's when the systolic blood pressure is higher than the cuff pressure and the heart can squeeze a ...


4

In this case make a large quantity and store it as stock - this is a general lab practice. Preparing 10 ml of your protK solurion would you need 2000ug (=2mg) of protK powder.


4

The measurement of core temperature (it is the right term*) is easy using an invasive method. It is also reliable since: Core temperature is easy to measure and temperatures are relatively homogeneous throughout the trunk and head[PMCID: PMC1752199]; However, the measurement of skin temperature is highly dependent on the location of measurement and ...


4

How cost efficient does it has to be? Do you want these data to be comparable to another study? Fundamental issues What do you call surface area? The interior of the guts (interior of the mouth, stomach, intestins, ...) are typically considered as exterior to the body. I would assume you don't want to consider these things in your measurements, right? ...


4

The standard way to measure growth in a liquid culture is to measure the optical density (OD) of the solution – basically, how cloudy it is. Bacteria or yeast in a solution will absorb light that passes through it, making it more cloudy (or turbid). Within a certain range of turbidity, the OD of the solution is directly proportional to the concentration of ...


4

Brain waves are a colloquial term for EEG recordings. EEG recordings are gross potential recordings, in other words, they represent the responses of thousands of neurons together. Much of the background is stochastically determined, meaning it represents, basically, random activity. In other words, oftentimes neurons fire stochastically and they cancel out ...


3

The temporal resolution of EEG is already considered to be very good. The problem is spatial resolution. Even the loss of very high frequency activity, like individual spikes, is really a problem of spatial rather than temporal resolution: the spiking cells are too far away, so it is only possible to detect them if they are very synchronized (in which case ...


3

Asides from just eyeballing the change in color/consistency, Wikipedia suggests using iodine for a qualitative measurement (though without reference): Iodine (I) can be used to determine whether fruit is ripening or rotting by showing whether the starch in the fruit has turned into sugar. For example, a drop of iodine on a slightly rotten part (not the ...


3

From Biotek I learned the following: Spectral scans of algae cultures demonstrate significant absorbance below 400 nm as well as two distinct absorbance peaks at 440 nm and 675 nm (Figure 1). Cell number determination is most consistent when light scatter is used rather than absorbance by cellular constituents. In order to avoid influence from absorbing ...


3

Leeches: According to Taube (1966)$^1$: The adults of American leeches range from about 1/4 inch to 12 inches in contracted length. Because leeches can bloat to more than 10x their "normal" size after a meal (and can undergo up to a 300% change in length), it seems that measuring a leech at anything but their contracted state would lead to wildly ...


3

Response of the gustatory receptor neurons can be measured using standard electrophysiological techniques, under different conditions(exposure to substances). For example see this article. However, it is difficult to say if a person feels sweetness or not or how the substance produces complex taste perceptions in some people.


3

As the name implies, reflectance spectra are measured from light reflected off an object. Any object with reflects light, such as any opaque object) will work for this technique; to me this seems like solids are ideally suited for reflectance spectrphotometry. You might be used to transmission or absorbance spectrophotometry, which measures the amount of ...


3

For all the common uses of a spectrophotometer in biology, any commercial one should be sufficient. For all the routine stuff, the quality of the spectrophotometer is usually of negligible importance. There are no general rules on what errors and resolution are acceptable, that always depends on what you're measuring. The error should be significantly ...


2

The original article cited in your reference is available here for free. After a quick skim, I saw that their study was based on fossils of a single species (Moas) all taken within a 5 km radius. Thus, it's possible the fossils were preserved under relatively similar conditions, despite different preservation ages. So, it's not yet clear how their results ...


2

Excellent question... "Can you measure plasma glucose with a blood glucose meter?" Absolutely Not! In my experience, if you try to measure plasma glucose with a whole blood glucose meter the results are highly variable for a number of reasons (mentioned below). Using blood glucose meters to measure plasma glucose is dangerous. The meters are calibrated for ...


2

On-line means that's it's generally continuous, or constantly taking the measure, through a tube connecting the batch. Offline is used for things that are taken out of the reactor, or removed from the process. Thus it's "on" or "off" the system depending on whether it's contained within the normal piping/fludics of the system: "On" is in the system, "...


2

Indeed, a paper was published in 2011 regarding the same for humans by using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure carnosine content. A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by 1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference ...


2

The problem of how to infer species distributions from scattered species occurrences is common in ecology, and there exists a number of methods to construct distribution maps. As a start, you should have a look at Species Distribution Models (SDMs) using regressions models or Maxent, and the paper by Elith et al (2009) is a good starting point and a standard ...


2

However, upon reviewing these papers, it appears that the neurons were stimulated while still inside the tissue, but after the tissue had been sliced. However, this seems so absurd that I must be misreading it. You're not misreading it. I can't access the paper you refer to, but this is a standard way to measure the electrophysiological properties of ...


2

If you are interested on the topic of how to compare assemblers, have a look at assemblathon. That group has two papers and working on a third about comparing genome assembly algorithms.


2

Short Answer No. You cannot appropriately examine population dynamics using the approach you've described. You can, however, examine how foraging frequencies vary/correlate with field spraying (though this might take more effort than you're looking for). Long Answer You're not going to be able to properly quantify population levels from casual ...


2

Results seem to vary wildly depending on the methodology. Charles' article on plos.org seems to be serious, and is very complete. Still, looking at an earlier study of Penn State University published by LiveScience, they measured speeds of up to 200 miles per hour. See it here: https://www.livescience.com/3686-gross-science-cough-sneeze.html As mentioned ...


1

50 g m-2 d-1 translates to "50 grams per square meter per day": the negative signs are negative exponents (check a math textbook). This is equivalent to writing ((50 g)/m2)/day You cannot transform this into volume, doing so would lose the meaning: if you are talking about biomass growth of 50 grams per square meter per day, you are saying that there is 50 ...


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