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Methanol is highly toxic in humans. As little as 10 ml of pure methanol can destroy the optic nerve and cause permanent blindness, while 30 ml dose is fatal (Vale et al, 2007). However, its toxic effects take hours to come up after ingestion, and antidotes are often helpful in preventing permanent damage. Methanol exerts its toxic effects by two main ...


8

If you mean if there are viruses, pathogenic bacteria or fungi that may cause diseases both in plants and in animals, the response would be that this is very unlikely (But even so, some fungi and bacteria could do it if some circumstances are given). This is due to some key factors: First of all, the philogenetic distance between plants and animals is huge. ...


7

Swelling is one of the signs of inflammation. Inflammation involves release of histamine by mast cells present in the tissues. Histamine causes vasodilation and leads to leakage of fluid from the blood, along with which neutrophils and other WBCs also enter the area. They phagocytose microbes that might have entered with the injury. Applying ice would cause ...


5

This is purely coincidental. The term levo simply means the direction that the pure enantiomer of the compound rotates plane polarized light at a specific wavelength and has no direct bearing on the interactions with biological systems. A quick search of the Dictionary of Drugs database gave 6845 compounds with optical rotation >0 (dextro-compounds) and 8406 ...


4

There are a number of reasons why a given metal may be toxic to an animal: Radioactive metals are the easy ones. Some metals can affect the normal biosynthetic pathways within the body. Lead is a good example of this, as it can take the place of calcium; I believe beryllium does the same for magnesium. Some metals themselves are very reactive. Hexavalent ...


3

Did you try to use Bioclipse: Bioclipse is mainly based on the Chemistry Development Kit (CDK), and contains a framework for managing and analyzing chemical compounds. Bioclipse supports editing in 2D, processing large collections of molecules in tables, calculation of various types of properties, and much more cheminformatics functionality. The Jmol ...


3

On the G6G Directory of OMICS and Intelligent software, I searched for "QSAR Analysis, and received two product abstracts: 1) SYBYL®-X Suite which contained: 3D QSAR: use the power of industry leading CoMFA in a new way to generate novel ideas for R-groups - predict the level of biological activity or potency based on structure-activity data, Not just yes/...


3

First question: Yes. The immune system releases pyrogenic cytokines such as IL-1. Bacteria aren't typically used to 37C, they prefer working at under that temperature to function in the environment. Our body however can take a few degrees here or there however this severely compromises the bacterial enzyme activity. The same is true for other pathogen ...


3

If the question is why a transplant implant like an artificial hip may be made from a metal, then toxicity issues of the metals are not the main question. I think it would be better to focus on metal sensitivity. Metal sensitivity is not a specific immune response as with transplanted organs, but a non specific response to a foreign substance in contact ...


3

Your limited understanding is indeed correct - the different colours indicate different stages of maturation, even though different colour cultivars exist (e.g. some that remain green even if fully ripe). It is known that the different maturation states have different vitamin and/or mineral concentrations (see here or here). This indicates that different ...


3

The short answer is that in reduction of BH2 to BH4 by dihydofolate reductase not only is a hydride ion (a proton plus an electron) transferred from NADPH to BH2, but the product also picks up a proton from the solvent: N5 of BH4 is protonated. $$\ce{BH2 + 2e- + 2H+ <=> BH4\tag{1}}$$ Enzymically (see EC 1.5.1.34): $$\ce{NADPH + BH2 + H+ <=> ...


3

Cancerous tissues break down glucose faster, not radioisotopes. Doctors use PET technique to detect breakdown of glucose, and "hot spots" are investigated as potential tumors. Glucose can be labeled with radioisotope to show up on PET scan. Normal glucose is "invisible". Hence, candidate for tumor will breakdown any glucose, but radioactive glucose will ...


3

According to a review (Prausnitz2004), marketed drugs with a dermal route of administration tend to fulfil the following criteria : Small molecular size (< 500 Da) High lipophilicity Small required dose (up to ~milligram) This is a consequence of the structure of the skin (with a lipophilic stratum corneum, and low diffusion speed) and practical ...


2

Based on my reading, weight gain, as in resetting your maintenance set-point, which is what it sounds like you are describing, is a very well-known side-effect of the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). In some cases, patients may even discontinue the medication. As far as I know, the underlying physiology behind this specific example is not ...


2

Xenon. It is like an ideal anaesthetic. See here. Xenon is an interesting anesthetic as it appears to lack negative inotropicy and vasodilatation, giving great advantages to both patients with limited cardiovascular reserve or those who require hemodynamic stability. It has low toxicity and is not teratogenic. Xenon gives rapid induction and ...


2

Methanol (methyl alcohol) tends to lack sporicidal activity on its own. However, fresh mixtures of methanol and hypochlorite, with at least 15% methanol, are known to have low sporicidal activity. With an increasing methanol concentration, right up to about 50% methanol, the sporicidal activity can be increased. The preparation, however, isn't overly stable ...


1

Propofol: a widely used i.v. anesthetic with GABA agonistic properties. It has to be given continuously i.v. When stopped, effects wear off in minutes, and recovery is without serious side effects and little nausea. Induction is quick (minutes or less) since it is administered i.v. Aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine), an adenosine receptor ...


1

I think @Amory answer is a good one but I would like to add a new point for the last part of your question. Our normal body cells can recruit the immune system when there is infection but the transplants can not. Some findings suggest that bacteria can form a biofilm over that part and so can become difficult to treat with antibiotics. Source : I read ...


1

I think a main problem here is limiting logic. By eliminating both toxic/poisonous plants, plants that have evolved to discourage you from eating them, and improperly "washed" plants, things which contain non-plant mater that can make you sick, you are not left with the possibility of diseases. BSE is caused by prions, which are mater of serious debate ...


1

For the reference, there is also USPEX, which works for a wide variety of molecular and continuous structures (mostly inorganic, though). USPEX can be used to predict stable crystal structures at given P-T conditions, knowing only the chemical composition (or to predict both the stable compositions and structures, given the element types). USPEX can also ...


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