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28

A reaction where the the free energy of a thermodynamically favorable transformation, such as the hydrolysis of ATP, and a thermodynamically unfavorable one, are mechanistically joined into a new reaction (or may be envisaged to be so joined) is known as a coupled reaction. To put it another way, two or more reactions may be combined mechanistically such ...


26

Before I restrict the answer to human metabolism, I recon it is important to mention that CO2 is the source of the carbon atoms of glucose in photosynthesis (in the Calvin cycle). [In photosynthesis CO2 is 'fixed']. Even with the above restriction, I am certain I cannnot do justice to every helpful aspect of CO2 in mammalian metabolism, and I'll restrict ...


26

Oxygen is actually not needed in the Krebs cycle - it is needed in the electron transport chain that is upstream of the Krebs cycle to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. NAD+ is a co-enzyme and acts as an electron carrier in oxidizing reactions at various positions in the Krebs cycle. However, note that without O2, NADH accumulates and the cycle cannot continue as ...


24

Short answer LSD appears to be enzymatically broken down in the liver. Background First off, hormones do not break down anything; enzymes are the work horses that mediate metabolism. According to a review paper (Passie et al., 2008), humans metabolize LSD into structurally similar metabolites (Fig. 1) by NADH-dependent microsomal liver enzymes to the ...


21

The issue is that it is not always a cycle, when you drain wetlands or burn forests to make more farmland that's not a cycle that is permanent change. A change that can continue having effects for centuries. Then of course you have petroleum fuel used to run tractors and the production of fertilizer which are often not cycles either but pure extraction. ...


20

It's pretty simple. A reaction occurs that releases energy (like ATP losing a phosphate to become ADP + Pi). If this is uncoupled, the energy will merely turn into heat. If it is coupled, then it can be used to fuel some other process. For instance, if you couple the ATP -> ADP reaction to a certain protein, the energy can be used to modify the shape of that ...


19

Short answer Birds emit infrared. Background Objects with a temperature higher than the background emit detectable infrared (IR). Endothermic (warmblooded) animals keep their body temperatures at around 37oC and given the relatively cool temperatures at the earth's surface, endotherms generally emit more IR than the background. Endothermic animals include ...


18

The cost of transcribing and translating a hypothetical average gene in yeast has been calculated as 551 activated phosphate bonds ~P per second (Wagner, 2005). The median length of a yeast RNA molecule is 1,474 nucleotides, and the median cost of precursor synthesis per nucleotide (derived from the base composition of yeast-coding regions) is 49.3 ∼...


17

Perhaps the question may also be phrased, "Why is it common for plants to produce chemicals that possess pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals?", and to that question it is often reasoned that plants, being sessile and otherwise defenceless food sources for predators, produce compounds that affect the physiology of animals in such a way ...


16

Gasoline toxicity through ingestions seems to be a topic where there's not a great deal of in-depth information available. I don't know how this works for chronic use, as most literature refers to acute scenarios. Either way, orally ingested, 30-50g is said to be toxic to humans while 350g can be fatal.[3]. So... Gasoline's Constituents A lot of ...


15

First of all, we should specify that there is no such thing as "HDL-cholesterols" and "LDL-cholesterols". On the same note there is no such thing as "good cholesterol" and "bad cholesterol": cholesterol is just one molecule, with this chemical structure What blood tests generally report is HDL-C and LDL-C, that is the amount of cholesterol in HDL or LDL ...


13

For the most part they are not used. there are amino acid racemases, which interconvert L- and D- forms of some specific amino acids, which may be used in some particular biosynthetic or metabolic pathways. In particular I'm thinking of firefly luciferase which uses D-Cysteine as a re-dox reagent to regenerate the luciferin substrate that the light - ...


13

The blood pH is tightly controlled since variations are quite dangerous for us. Under normal circumstances the pH is 7.4 (with a normal range between 7.35 and 7.45). Below that we are talking about acidosis, above it about alkalosis. If the blood pH goes about 7.8 or below 6.8, death will occur. This pH is maintained by the Bicarbonate-buffering system, for ...


13

You are correct that reduction is simply a gain of electrons. This results in a decrease in oxidation number. You know that NAD+ is reduced by this process because it starts off with a positive charge (+1) and ends up with a neutral charge (0). The reducing agent that is donating the electrons is the hydrogen. More correctly, the electrons come from the ...


12

In the case of red blood cells: human erythrocytes (red blood cells) have no mitochondria. Since the mitochondria are the cellular site for oxidative metabolism of fatty acids, erythrocytes cannot oxidise fatty acids to release energy. The erythrocytes also cannot fully oxidise glucose (to carbon dioxide and water) because this is also a mitochondrial ...


12

Some additional points about role of bicarbonate (which is directly formed from carbon dioxide as described by TomD): Helps is neutralizing the acidic chyme when it enters intestine. Formation of shells in invertebrates and eggshells in birds and reptiles. Shells are formed by deposition of calcite (calcium carbonate) which primarily happens by increased ...


12

All organisms recycle their waste internally. Every cell of every living organisms is constantly breaking things down and re-using the components so produced. But you're presumably wondering about things such as carbon dioxide, urine and faeces? These are not recycled because the benefits of doing so are not worth the costs. Let's consider carbon dioxide as ...


12

Gluconeogenesis is not the reversal of the glycolysis, but the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors (like odd chain fatty acids and proteins). The reason why we have this process is because some organs and tissues can only use glucose as their energy source. These include the brain (although ketone bodies can be used here as well), ...


11

Fat uptake means cells eating fat. I'll try to keep it simple, so forget the many approximations. You need first to consider that most fat circulates in the blood under the form of triglycerides (TG). TG are not soluble in water, so how do they circulate? They are hidden inside cargo vehicles called lipoproteins. When a circulating lipoprotein touches a ...


11

I thought this was a great question. In particular because it hints at two questions. The first is 'why carbohydrates are used to store energy' in general. The second being 'why glucose rather than other carbohydrates?' in particular. Glucose metabolism (and glycogen storage) is a core gene pathway - its found in bacteria archaea and eukaryotes. So ...


11

There are some very general answers to your question. Definitely, there is a lot of magical thinking. We as humans are very prone to anecdotical evidence and extrapolations from incomplete data, even more so when we are drunk. As an interesting "proof" is the fact that the German counterpart of the saying "beer after wine and you'll feel fine, wine after ...


11

This terminology is at least as old as September 1944 when Enzymatic Synthesis of Acetyl Phosphate Journal of Biological Chemistry 155, 55-70 was published by Lipmann, which says: Inorganic phosphate, referred to as Pi, was estimated colorimetrically See also the definition of "inorganic phosphate" and "orthophosphate" from this 1943 University of ...


10

does the microbiome affect food metabolism? Most definitely (and not surprisingly). The Arumugam paper [1] notes that The drivers of [enterotype 1] seem to derive energy primarily from carbohydrates and proteins through fermentation, … because genes encoding enzymes involved in the degradation of these substrates (galactosidases, hexosaminidases, ...


10

The switch from glucose to ketone bodies as the principal blood metabolite accompanies starvation. This prioritizes the heart, which preferentially uses ketone bodies as a fuel (update; actually it's fatty acids, but they're metabolically similar.) This de-prioritizes the brain, which preferentially uses glucose. [edit] I was asked for a source. This is ...


10

During putrefaction of animal tissue, lysine is decarboxylated into cadaverine and arginine is decarboxylated into putrescine. These compounds are deemed to be toxic. A serving of meat contains 8 g of protein, corresponding to 640 mg lysine and a little bit less of arginine. Let's go straight and say that a spoiled meat serving contains 640 mg cadaverine ...


10

First, the hormonal and hemodynamic changes seen in hangover are distinct from those seen in alcohol withdrawal, so the advice to drink more is not good, even if some symptoms are in fact improved. See tables 2/3 in the cited review. It appears the molecular mechanism of veisalgia (HA, a new word) is not well known. 1. acetaldehyde Part of it may be ...


10

The term "irreversible" means that the reverse reaction occurs so rarely that it is considered negligible. This means that you do not have to consider equilibrium, as you have to for reversible reactions. Instead, you can assume that all of the reactants will eventually become product. As you stated, this is true for reactions that have a very negative ...


10

Fatigue on exercise is proportional to unmet demand for oxygen and glucose (sugar/fuel). In people who are "fat": They typically do less exercise. Therefore their cardiovascular system is not conditioned with the heart being able to cope with increased exercise i.e. it is unable to beat more efficiently and instead must beat A LOT more faster to cope ...


9

The glycogen in the liver begins providing blood glucose. Muscle glycogen is used as fuel by the muscles, fat cells (adipose tissue) release fatty acids to manufacture ketone bodies in the liver and to be used by the brain as fuel, and body proteins are converted to glucose. In short, the body's metabolism shifts to catabolic reactions. If this continues ...


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