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This is a great question! As I see you are new and you have explained within the comments above that you haven't studied biology much I will keep the explanation short and sweet. Young children have fatigue resistant muscles and they also recover faster from high intensity workouts when compared to adults. Children have also been found to use more aerobic ...


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Short answer Approximately 240 J on a daily basis. Background Ballesteros et al. (2018) modeled basal metabolic rates of insects. They reckoned that endotherms, like insects, basically use energy directly correlated to the number of cells, which is linearly correlated to their body mass. They checked their model with experimental data from Chown et al. (...


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Summary The apparent paradox is resolved by the fact that not all tissues possess receptors that cause them to respond to glucagon or, more generally, to the same hormone. Where different tissues do respond to the same hormone, the tissue response may differ because of differences between the pathways or particular enzymes within the different tissues. ...


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You've made one faulty assumption: that the second reaction is occuring at the same rate as the first. In fact, plants only burn enough glucose to fuel their activities. Much of the formed glucose is converted into storage forms like cellulose and starch. In fact, the vast majority of a plant's carbon mass comes ultimately from CO2 which has been converted ...


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As the concern expressed by the poster has recurred in an essentially similar question despite the excellent answer by @MattdDMo, I shall provide an additional answer labouring the basic biochemical points. Inorganic phosphate (the term used to describe the mixture of different phosphate ions present at physiological pH) in animals is derived from the diet. ...


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It has been known for 40 years or more that some insects such as termites digest cellulose by synthesizing their own cellulases, whereas others have a symbiotic relationship with gut micro-organisms that perform this digestion (see Martin, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (1983) 75A 313-324 — requires subscription — or this short popular science article). What is ...


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The human body can not store Proteins (technically). BACKGROUND : PROTEIN is a very broad term and there are hundreds and thousands of proteins.[1] Proteins are heteropolymers consisting of amino acids held by peptide bonds. Amino acids : There are 9 amino acids which we need to intake. Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, ...


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The following is based on a conversation I had with a senior biochemist in my university who conducts grant-funded research on the relationship between diabetes and heart disease. It can be criticized for the paucity of external sources from which its veracity can be checked. However, although the question is based on a misconception I thought it should be ...


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Capnophiles (from the Greek kapnós, meaning smoke) are organisms that thrive in the presence of high concentrations of CO2. Some of these organisms have a metabolic requirement for CO2. Many organisms present in the cow rumen are capnophiles by necessity, as CO2 is the major gas product of rumen fermentation (66% by molarity). One such organism is ...


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GLUT4 is the major glucose transporter in muscle even in exercise. However, during exercise, it is translocated to the cell surface by contraction-triggered, insulin-independent mechanisms, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. For more, you could read this review. Note: 'No insulin' is too strong a phrase; exercise and fasting are ...


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The amount of carbon stored in plants can be measured by carbon mass in it's dry weight. Trees are known for carbon sequestration ability, because they're long-lived, improve local microclimate and water retention and provide a habitat for many species. There are many positive consequences of having more trees, but soil is a much more efficient biological ...


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To understand that, you must have a basic understanding of Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. it states- $\Delta G'=\Delta G^{'o} +RT\,ln\,(Q) $ Here, $\Delta G'$ = biochemical free energy change & $\Delta G^{'o}$ = standard biochemical free energy change. Suppose you have a reaction, $x+FADH_2\rightleftharpoons xH_2+FAD $ So, $Q=\dfrac{[xH_2][FAD]}{[x][FADH_2]}$ ...


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This definition of Metabolism is similar to most I've seen in biology textbooks. Metabolism: the sum of the chemical reactions that take place within each cell of a living organism and that provide energy for vital processes and for synthesizing new organic material. The broadest definition I would give for "metabolite" is any molecule that's ...


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This paragraph appears to draw a distinction between "the sum total of all reactions in cells" and "some isolated reactions that occur in cells". The former is "metabolism" and one defining trait of life; the latter are "metabolic reactions" and can occur in a test tube, and if so they do not fit tidily in a living/...


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I like admire your interest. Organisms in development rely not only on their genetic make-up but also: their environment and epigenetics (no matter how early in development). In addition to variables other than the ones stated... In reality if we were to test this - the twins wont eat at the same speed, expend the same amount of energy, stay the same ...


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Hello and welcome A learner, Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of the molecule glycogen into glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the metabolic process by which organisms produce glucose and other sugars from non-carbohydrate precursors. These processes arrive at the same product (Glucose). Glucocorticoids stimulate the process of Gluconeogenesis but not the process of ...


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A good approach could be to use GC-MS to identify cytosolic metabolites. When focussing on cytosolic amino acids, it might be useful to precipitate the proteins in a purification step and continue with the soluble fraction. Subsequently, a derivatization is done. The mass spectrometry helps to better identify the amino acids. This article by Phelippe et al. ...


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This available paper has some ideas, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736421/ Search terms cyanotoxin and evolutionary give at least two more promising papers. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/615542v1.full says: i) photoprotection due to absorption of harmful ultra-violet radiation; (ii) facilitating the acquisition or more efficient ...


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Erythrocytes need more than just glucose in order to function and, they also need a extracelullar medium who shares the same osmolarity, so placing your red blood cells into a medium that solely has glucose will be problematic. If you solely want to evaluate the lactic fermentation carried out by erythrocytes on a short period of time, then you can add the ...


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I'll add a more straightforward answer than the previous answerer (who was certainly more in-depth and informative than I will be), for the purposes of clarity. I think protein is stored in the body very much functionally, just not in reservoirs of reserve chemical energy such as adipose tissues do with fat. I am interested to know if a human body can ...


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This is something I have been researching on and off for many years. I studied nutrition back in the early 1980s and our lecturer always said that "fats burn in the flame of CHOs". He said that the citric acid cycle was dependent on oxaloacetic acid - the predominant source was from glucose (pyruvic acid). https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/...


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Firstly, it should be noted that a stable, healthy microbiome is generally thought to be a marker of health; actively disrupting it through diet in an attempt to fight with it over nutrients is therefore not necessarily a good idea, as it can affect the health of not only your gut but also your immune system, etc. Dysfunctional microbiomes are for example ...


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