5

Obviously, one can't use antibiotic resistance since they are not bacteria. This is not so obvious. Some common antibiotics are active against archaea.1 The Halohandbook, an indispensable document for the propagation and transformation of Halobacteria, includes a list of selectable markers and their concomitant plasmids: NovR, MevR, and TmR are genes ...


5

Bacteria and other Microorganisms are mostly water, and to replicate they will need more water. The water they need is not present in olive oil. Salts and other required elements are also not present in olive oil, at least not in sufficient quantities to support proliferation of microorganisms. Our stomachs indeed have no problem metabolizing oil, but if ...


4

Why log pathogen reduction for pasteurization validation and not absolute counts? From a product point of view wouldn't some sort of absolute target on the amount of pathogens (count) make sense? Because pasteurization is a manufacturing processes, not a product, it makes sense to define this process in terms of what it achieves. Namely, reducing pathogens. ...


3

While some viruses, such as influenza, can indeed hybridize to form different strains, you should not worry about SARS-CoV-2 hybridizing with anything but another coronavirus. They are simply too far removed, taxonomically, for such an interaction to be plausible. Consider the following: The taxonomic classification of SARS-CoV-2 is: Viruses; Riboviria; ...


2

As explained by user GrumpyMammoth, you can do serial dilutions until the colonies are few enough to be counted and then calculate the CFUs using the dilution factor. If you do not want to count the colonies yourself, you can use ImageJ's "Analyze particles" function. This will give you the number of colonies. ImageJ's "Analyze particles" ...


2

Autoclave is standard, but bleach can be used. In your case, you'll want all the culture media and dish surfaces to have contact with the diluted bleach solution. I would prepare diluted liquid bleach as described in the link below and pour some in a plastic wash tub to a depth where you can put all your petri dishes etc in and have them fully submerged. Let ...


1

I am not 100% sure on this, but it looks very like a diatom. These are a range of very diverse unicellular algae found world-wide in soil and water environments (salt and fresh). There are a huge number of species (also genera, families etc.). The reasons I think that this is a diatom are that it has what appears to be a thick transparent wall (photos 2 and ...


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