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These resources may help. This book, “Plasmids of Eukaryotes”, explains that... “The possession of plasmids was for a long time recognized only in the bacteria. It is now evident that plasmids, or replicative forms of DNA structurally and experimentally comparable to bacterial plasmids, exist in eukaryotic organisms as well. Such plasmids are in fact common ...


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The difference in flame diameter between a Bunsen and Meker (or Fisher) burner really isn't that much, so I'm not sure how much larger the sterile field would be. On the other hand, Fisher burners can be tuned to be much hotter than standard Bunsen burners, so that may impact the size of the field as well. But, at the same time, they use more fuel, so you ...


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Most viruses of human concern are "enveloped", that is, they are surrounded by a lipid membrane. This membrane is usually what determines the shape of the outer layer, and is intrinsically flexible, so most human viruses would be able to deform a bit to fit through a hole. Additionally, the size of individual enveloped virus particles tends to vary ...


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