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For Covaxin (BBV152), SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated by treatment with β-propiolactone [1]. β-propiolactone reacts with and modifies, among other things, nucleic acids, thus preventing their replication [2]. [1] Yadav P, Ella R, Kumar S, et al. 2020. Remarkable immunogenicity and protective efficacy of BBV152, an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in rhesus macaques....


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The authors actually give their explanation in the first paragraph of the result section. The main reasons for their claim are that they did not detect any labeling with 4SU or EU and that both analogs suppress bacterial growth. Also they raise the issue with the naturally occurring 4SU in tRNAs. Aiming to develop nucleoside analogs compatible with ...


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First I assume many years equals 10 years or more, although the presence of oxygen may drastically speed this up or it may interfere it is hard to say. Nobody was tried to figure out how something will rot in sealed but consciously oxygenated container since is basically does not exist without a custom built chamber. Your main factor is humidity that is ...


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The nanoparticles from your sock will most certainly not reach to your foots cell membrane (Walls are for plants/fungi) because of the thick layer of dead skin, oils, than about 30 cell thick cornified layer (stratum corneum) build up from practically dead cells (with no nuclei or organelles) but lots of filamentous keratine. This is the most outer shell of ...


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Yeast grows very well in liquid. The initial innoculum from the store will visible grow (“prove”) in warm water with a little sugar.


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The term self-propelled requires some finer qualification in the case of bacteriophages. Although bacteriophages are generally carried via Brownian motion, as described in the other answers, in some of them the attachment process exhibits autonomous propulsion. In particular, they may walk on the surface of a bacteria (see modeling video here) and they ...


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