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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is naturally competent for transformation. The first step of the transformation process is the uptake of DNA from the environment into the cell. This transport step is driven by a powerful molecular machine. Here, we addressed the question whether this machine imports single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at ...


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From Henderson's Dictionary of Biology 14 ed. An operon is: a type of gene organization in bacteria, in which the genes coding for the enzymes of a metabolic pathway are clustered together in the DNA and transcribed together into a single mRNA. This mRNA is then translated to give the individual proteins. The expression of all the genes in an operon is ...


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Prophylaxis is typically prior to exposure. Condoms, for example, were historically referred to as prophylactics, in that they prevent pregnancy and many STIs. The reason the pre-exposure bit is given special attention in this context is that it refers to use of drugs with substantial risk of harm. Because of their associated risk, these drugs were ...


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It is plausible but by no means established that antipyretics (fever suppressors) in particular could increase the duration of infection/symptoms, because fever is part of a functional immune response. From Graham et al 1990 (a small [n=56] randomized trial of the use of antipyretic pain relievers in volunteers experimentally infected with rhinovirus): ...


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