The answer to Question 1 is:
The ribonucleases responsible for digesting removed intron RNA do not recognize the miRNA as such. They are unable to digest it because (or to the extent that) it assumes a double-stranded structure, as they are specific for single-stranded RNA.
The answer to Question 2 is briefly:
By the same mechanism as the many microRNAs ...
The authors actually give their explanation in the first paragraph of the result section. The main reasons for their claim are that they did not detect any labeling with 4SU or EU and that both analogs suppress bacterial growth. Also they raise the issue with the naturally occurring 4SU in tRNAs.
Aiming to develop nucleoside analogs compatible with ...
In order to assemble your TAG oligos by PCR you will need to redesign your primers so they are complementary to the TAG oligos as DNA polymerases work by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand.
Your design would look like this :
Now with this design you won't be able to assemble everything together as TAG-3 complementarity to primer 2 only ...
Many proteins that bind the nucleotide triphosphates ATP and GTP have an evolutionary conserved motif — the P-loop — that binds the phosphate portion of the molecule. This has the sequence, GXXXXGKS/T. Although the conserved basic lysine (K) is interacts with two of the positively charged phosphate moieties, other interactions involve Mg2+ ions (with ...
I agree that the definitions can be somewhat confusing when first encountered.
Each nucleotide has a complement A-T, C-G. But the DNA strand are reverse-complementary because when aligned from 5'->3' they are not (necessarily) complementary.
DNA strand 5'-ATCCGG-3'
Since we want to write all ...
This paper appears to be a history of the discovery of B/T differentiation and the role of the thymus. I believe that you should find a number of important references therein.
It describes specifically a series of publications in the 1950s and 1960s that may be relevant (section "Identification of T and B cells"), such as this one by Gowans.
Gibson Assembly is not ideal for short fragments; chances are that the T5 Exonuclease will digest your entire fragment before it has the chance to hybridize with the backbone. For fragments shorter than 200 bp NEB recommends a 5-fold excess to compensate for this, but in your case the fragment would only be around 130 bp long. It might work, but efficiency ...
All you need is the Nernst equation and the voltage across the membrane.
The answer you get from Nernst is the equilibrium potential for the ion of interest. This is the potential at which the concentration and electrical gradients are exactly equal for that ion. If the voltage across a membrane is at the Nerst potential there is no net passive flow of the ...
Not much luck there. Although caffeine, sildenafil and cGMP share a basic ring structure, the specificity and potency of caffeine for PDE5 is rather underwhelming:
On the basis of comparative IC50 values, the potency of sildenafil is about 1 million times higher than that of caffeine (Corbin and Francis, 1999).
The paper references c.u. to their "ODE model construction & simulation" which is referenced back to a 2016 paper that uses the term in reference to a simulation in MATLAB.
c.u. is abbreviation for CONCENTRATION UNIT not CELL UNIT.
Given the absence of experimental measurements of protein concentrations, we use concentration units (c.u.) as ...
Some protocols are not going out of style anytime soon, such as:
Frederick M. Ausubel, Roger Brent, Robert E. Kingston, David D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, John A. Smith, Kevin Struhl (2002) Short Protocols in Molecular Biology. Wiley, 1512pp. Check the Appendix sections for buffer formulations, etc. My copy is torn into pieces due to heavy use.
If you need the ...