4

You seem to be under the impression that there are a set number mutations per cell, which is not true. The number of mutations is roughly proportional to the number of bases — this is because mutations typically happen as a result of errors during DNA replication .1 Consequently, more DNA will not protect the coding portions of the genome from mutation. ...


2

Transcription of DNA is ultimately controlled by "various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on" in the cell. The molecules which make up the "various transcription factors", etc. are already present in the cell when a new transcription begins. As you note, most all of these molecules are themselves dependent on the transcription of DNA, but ...


2

According to PDB (protein data bank — a repository for protein structures) the chromophore must be protected from interaction with water molecules to fluoresce. The chromophore is found right in the middle of the [protein], totally shielded from the surrounding environment. This shielding is essential for the fluorescence. The jostling water molecules ...


1

In general, "apo" is used to indicate an apoenzyme — that is the protein part of an enzyme without essential cofactor(s). This is actually defined in the Experimental section of the paper: Cas9/Cpf1 without gRNA (ApoCas9/Cpf1) So, in this case ApoCas9 is Cas9 endonuclease that is not bound to a guide RNA.


1

IanC's answer is great, but is missing one and possibly the most important point. There is a distinction between being alive or having life, and "life" in the sense that we associate with words like individual, personhood, being. In the first sense; the biological sense, a zygote is most definitely alive; a living thing; a lifeform etc. But in the second ...


1

The discussion of when a life starts is a little more complicated than that. Many views and disagreements between them fuel the discussions of pro-life/abortion groups. Some of the views and what they consider the beginning of life: Metabolic view: Considers that there's no singular developmental moment that marks the beginning of life. Any single or ...


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