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It's mostly just a flowery extra word in there when you also have the word "target". If you imagine a signalling pathway as a river/stream, then you have some parts of the pathway that are toward the beginning of the river, and you have some that are towards the end of the river, but up/downstream really all depends on where on the river your ...


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Yes. We can use some specialist applications of electron microscopy to do this. This does rely on a computer to do some of the imaging (think very fancy camera). There is an open access article at Science Advances that has images from transmission electron microscopy of DNA, specifically figures 1 and 3. Note: As mentioned by @timeskull figure 3 is a ...


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Without knowing your specific protocol, it is common to use more than one purification method for a single protein. Given the broad similarities that all proteins and even most biomolecules share, it is impossible to completely purify a protein in a single step. The strategy therefore must be to purify via as many properties unique to the target protein as ...


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