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Even though the DNA sequence may be 90+% similar between two species, individual amino acids can make a huge difference in the interaction between two proteins. In this case, the most relevant proteins are the coronavirus spike protein and the ACE2 enzyme expressed on the surface of target cells. Even in the limited amount of time SARS-CoV-2 has existed and ...


4

Now, one of them claimed that if the volume were to remain constant, then mass is directly proportional to density hence the insertion mutation should cause increase in mass corresponding to a similar increase in density. I don't think that's quite how it works. You don't worry about the volumes being used. In those experiments (I don't know that anyone ...


3

Yes, in this context $\gamma$ indicates phosphorylation. See e.g. "The phosphorylated form of H2AX is called $\gamma$-H2AX [18, 19]." from here, and references therein. I am unsure of the exact basis of this, but I believe that it is because the gamma phosphate group of a nucleotide triphosphate is the one that is generally used by kinases to ...


3

When describing mutations, $\Delta$ usually stands for deleted sequences. In this case it means the exchange of 4 cysteine residues in the NCAM protein by serines to disable palmitoylation and the association of the protein to lipid rafts. If you search for this specific mutation, you will find the paper from Niethammer et al., 2003, which describes the ...


2

The answer to the first part of your question is: diffusion. After transcription and some processing, the eukaryotic mRNA is exported to the cytoplasm. Here it floats around until it meets a ribosome. Binding of ribosome to mRNA is facilitated by proteins called initiation factors (IFs) and the 5' cap of mRNA$^1$. The second part of your question basically ...


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I would suggest in the future doing a small amount of research before asking. For example, the wikipedia page for euchromatin says this: Euchromatin participates in the active transcription of DNA to mRNA products. The unfolded structure allows gene regulatory proteins and RNA polymerase complexes to bind to the DNA sequence, which can then initiate the ...


2

The key is that TKIs, such as Imatinib, are a therapy rather than a cure Per Wikipedia, Imatinib acts as a competitive inhibitor of the otherwise constitutively-active BCR-ABL fusion protein, rather than the fusion gene. By binding the kinase domain, BCR-ABL is unable to phosphorylate downstream effectors that result in unchecked proliferation. As long as ...


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