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It's mostly just a flowery extra word in there when you also have the word "target". If you imagine a signalling pathway as a river/stream, then you have some parts of the pathway that are toward the beginning of the river, and you have some that are towards the end of the river, but up/downstream really all depends on where on the river your ...


The short answer is heat. Compared to the covalent phosphodiester bonds, hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) are very weak, and they're much easier to break and re-form. A long enough piece of double-stranded DNA will stick together at physiological temperature because it contains thousands of highly coordinated hydrogen bonds. But even long pieces of double-stranded ...


To expand on what others have said beyond mutation rates; many organisms are endoploids so cell genomes are different by sizes within organisms.


Yes. We can use some specialist applications of electron microscopy to do this. This does rely on a computer to do some of the imaging (think very fancy camera). There is an open access article at Science Advances that has images from transmission electron microscopy of DNA, specifically figures 1 and 3. Note: As mentioned by @timeskull figure 3 is a ...

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