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First of all, uracil can be in DNA. Cytosine can spontaneously convert to uracil by a process called hydrolytic desamination. This causes guanine, which was originally bound to this cytosine, to be bound to uracil instead (remember: uracil normally binds to adenine). The next time the cell replicates its DNA, the place opposite this uracil would be occupied ...


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The TM of the primer is also influnced of the salt concentration of your mix. Do you try the PCR gradient? Or you try the calculation of Tm and take in consideration the salt concentration. http://www.biophp.org/minitools/melting_temperature/demo.php


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You already have described the differeneces in your definitions. You can see them. Let me explain how? You say biochemistry is the study of chemicals necessary for life and their reactions in different mechanisms like energy production as in bioenergetics. Molecular biology is the study of techniques used for modification of of a gene as you have given the ...


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As far as I know, there isn't too much we know about why life is "left-handed". So far the prevailing hypothesis is that in space there may be a tendency for amino-acids to favor one chiral-state over another, and there's some very smart people who are testing this, as opposed to the 50:50 shot here on Earth. To answer your question, however, the general ...


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Ion can change secondary structure of an enzyme. Magnesium ion is coordinated within certain domains (for example, EF-hand motif) and makes them more ordered. Usually it happens via hydrophilic shell of residues embedded into a hydrophobic one (https://www.pnas.org/content/87/15/5648). You can reverse it by adding a chelator (EDTA, for example) and protein ...


4

The two techniques serve different purposes: IP: purifies a protein WB: visualizes or quantifies a protein Most often when I have done IPs (in the hazy past) I have turned around and run the protein out on a WB, so one will frequently combine both techniques. Sometimes a protein is very low abundance so you will not see it in a small volume of crude cell ...


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I know this question is old, but I doubt the pheomelanin switch could be made orally since most nutrients cannot survive the process of digestion; it would take a lot of cysteine/glutathione to do so. From my light research, you may also need other ingredients in this hypothetical pill like sulfur (MSM, same thing in joint supplements).


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The short answer is because RNA molecules are transient, while DNA is permanent. In other words, a degenerated RNA molecule will simply be degraded over time while DNA will require to be repaired via a fairly energetically unfavorable mechanism. For DNA, it is therefore energetically favorable to have a proofreading mechanisms when undergoing duplication. ...


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Finding a suitable reference gene is tricky. It depends on your prior knowledge about the system. You may start with the same amount of RNA but errors can accumulate many other steps. That is why you use a reference gene to minimize the effect of those errors accumulated during sample processing. So unless you are very precise, you cannot say that everything ...


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There is no clear-cut line between "synthetic" and "natural" substances. They are made from the same kinds of atoms using the same kinds of covalent, ionic, and other types of bonds. The fact that a substance MAY be produced by some organism by biological processes does not make it any different from the same substance made in a laboratory by a human ...


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(my comment reiterating the answer seemed useful, so I've reproduced it here) There are "NMDA receptors" in our body. There is not NMDA naturally in our body*. "NMDA receptor" is just a name people gave to one of the receptors that normally binds glutamate. They could have called it something else, like the "slow glu receptor", or "Glutamate Receptor A", ...


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According to the NEB website FAQ, yes, it can, but less efficiently. "DpnI cleaves hemi-methylated dam sites 60X more slowly than fully methylated."


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One of the reasons why region may not be amplified via PCR is that the region is much larger than is thought. This may happen if there is a repeat of variable length in the region that may be difficult to sequence precisely, or have a different length in your sample than is shown inside NCBI database. In the case we hit it was Homo sapiens. I am not sure ...


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A few things to consider: Template: Are you sure the template you want is on a plasmid, and not in the Rhizobium genomic DNA? (In which case it would not be present in DNA purified with a plasmid miniprep kit - you would need to do some kind of genomic DNA prep instead.) Have you measured the concentration of your template DNA? I typically put ~2-10 ng of ...


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The polymorphism in the gene product of the human ABO locus seems to provide an example of what the question demands. It does not involve a gene duplication or recovery from loss of function; rather it involves changes that cause interactions with a different ligand, and the mutations that produce these changes have been identified and examined at a ...


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Neuropeptides are packaged in the soma via the Golgi into dense core vesicles, similar to how other types of secreted proteins are packaged. These vesicles are transported to axon terminals where they await release signals. Sossin, W. S., Fisher, J. M., & Scheller, R. H. (1989). Cellular and molecular biology of neuropeptide processing and packaging. ...


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