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A subgenomic promoter is a promoter added to a virus for a specific heterologous gene, resulting in the formation of mRNA for that gene alone. Many positive-sense RNA viruses produce these subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNA) as one of the common infection techniques used by these viruses and generally transcribe late viral genes. From doi:10.1128/jvi.74.13.5988-5996....


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It really depends on a variety of factors. (1) the nature of the dsDNA, is it a plasmid or chromosomal DNA? Plasmids more easily renature than chromosomes, so rapid cooling and heating my not affect renaturing of plasmids, but affect DNA. Cooling it slowly in some PCR-based experiment may be done if you want to annealing DNA fragments but are not sure about ...


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To denature something can have different meanings: In context of dsDNA it means separation of the 2 stands, while the individual strands themselves are fragmented. I assume your question addresses PCR. In this context, rapid cooling to very low temperatures would prevent annealing of the two separated strands. Other than that I want to point out a common ...


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Your question couldn't be answered using just suggestions: we need proofs. In this study (from which I've quoted the sentence below) authors suggest an implication for inflammation response in patient. Among the mutations, the ORF3a-Type-3 and ORF3a-Type-4 mutations are restricted to only the Indian patients based in Ahmedabad so far it is identified. These ...


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I don't think definite answers exist but I can think of theoretical reasons: First, Poly A tail can efficiently be synthesized because ATP is the most readily available nTP, being the main energy source. More to the mechanism, but this is no explanation to the evolution: The termination sequence 'TTTATT' on the DNA template and 'AAUAAA'on the RNA is the ...


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No. I don’t think anybody would call the sigma factor of bacterial RNA polymerase — or indeed any other protein — a cofactor or a coenzyme, the subset of cofactors that are organic (the original poster is wrong in his declaration about cofactors, or at least one reputable text book disagrees with him). I could justify this statement by quoting a definition ...


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Where do you get that populations aren't evolving? A population might be in HWE for a particular trait if there is no selection on that trait, but that doesn't mean that there is no selection or drift happening on any trait!


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You are looking at high school biology books. if that. I'd be shocked if a high school text didn't mention blood group genes, for instance. The simple genetics that Mendel elucidated only applies to a very small number of situations. In real life, very few situations are explained by the interactions of only two different alleles, one of which is ...


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It is stated that out of all eumetazoans in Kingdom Animalia, only arthropods do not contain such structures. I found this paper(1), eliciting an exception (within an exception)- Isotomurus maculatus: Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, ...


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The diagram is a composite of all 16S RNA structures. It has a summary with it that explains all. "16S rRNA secondary structure, showing conserved parts for Prokaryotes (IUPAC letters) and amongst Archea/Bacteria (asterisks) all others as dots. Adapted (in SVG!) from Woese Bacterial evolution 1987" The base pairs that are marked with A,U,C,G are ...


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The subtext of the textbook excerpt quoted above is that when people are eating vegetable oil, they are not eating other fat sources. Saturated fats increase LDL levels, and unsaturated fats do not. A C Beynen, M B Katan, Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol?, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 42, Issue 3, September ...


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I would recommend looking at this paper, and in particular the section "A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO OENOTHERA GENETICS": The genetics of Oenothera is a genetics of entire haploid genomes (Renner complexes), which inherit as single units and are entitled with names such as hjohansen, Galbicans, or Gflavens (for terminology, see materials and methods). ...


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