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I recommend two YouTube channels. Shomu's Biology. Probably the channel with the most extensive coverage of biology, but the guy explaining it has a very thick accent that is sometimes hard to follow. AK Lectures. Its main focus is on metabolism and physiology. I personally find it easy to understand.


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For metabolism, I definately recommend Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry by Michal. It is very extensive however, so memorizing its compounds and pathways takes much time and dedication. Generally, it works better as a reference book.


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bambara groundnut does not have a reference genome This is your biggest problem if you want to do any sequencing based analysis. Neither GWAS nor RNAseq data analysis are possible without a reference genome (or at least transcriptome). Depending on the availability, quality & similarity of reference genomes from related species it may however be ...


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DNA misreplication events can lead to accidental duplication of DNA (even the entire genome), misalignements in recomibination events, integration of DNA from extracellular sources e.g. viruses. All these events can lead to large scale changes in the genome size of an organisms, smaller scale changes can be insertions and deletions in the DNA from repair ...


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The rason for defining the Tm the way we do is because there is a Boltzmann distribution of energies of all DNA molecules in a sample (the DNA molecules have different energies due to thermal fluctuations). Thus, even at -10 degrees Celsius, some of the DNA will be ssDNA as a very small proportion of the population of DNA molecules will have a high enough ...


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Mutations do occur in mRNA. This can occur during transcription, when RNA polymerase incorporates a non-cognate nucleotide into the nascent RNA strand (this may be because the DNA forms a short lived tautomer from quantum tunnelling, or because ). Alternatively, just like DNA bases, RNA bases are inherently unstable due to things like deamination events, but ...


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Your supposition is incorrect. RNA does accumulate "mutations" because the RNA polymerase also makes errors. The misincorporation rate of bacterial RNA polymerase is ~10–5 per nucleotide (Traverse & Ochman, 2016). Compared to that, DNA polymerase has much higher fidelity and has misincorporation of ~10–10 per nucleotide per generation (Zhu et ...


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If you search for DNA melting temperature plots you will see they have a sigmoid shape. It's common for those kinds of plots to be described by the 50% value for example the therapeutic index and the 50% lethal dose of a substance (LD50). This is because at really low and really high temperatures all DNA molecules become dsDNA or ssDNA respectively so that ...


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Via: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_transcriptase#Replication_fidelity There are three different replication systems during the life cycle of a retrovirus. First of all, the reverse transcriptase synthesizes viral DNA from viral RNA, and then from newly made complementary DNA strand. The second replication process occurs when host cellular DNA ...


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Banana fruit is very susceptible to chilling injury (CI) and this can occur at relatively high temperatures: CI may occur at 12oC and under. Typically the banana skin turns brown, but in addition there may be pitting and the fruit may not soften (Wang et al., 2013). Oxidative Stress & ROS One generally accepted theory it that oxidative stress, due to ...


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After studying this topic a bit more I came to the conclusion that supercoiling itself does not overwound/underwound the DNA any further that it already is. Supercoiling just relieves the stress introduced after DNA gets further twisted in the first place, it relaxes the DNA by decreasing the twist back to normal (10.4bp per turn just like normal relaxed B-...


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Additionally DNA is inherently more stable due to the removal of the hydroxyl group from the C2 carbon on the ribose making it less reactive. This could be pointed to as an example of the limiting factor in the inherent complexity of any organism that uses RNA instead of DNA for long term data storage. That would be a discussion for another thread though.


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The premise of the questions suggests that mutations cannot take place in the mRNAs of higher eukaryotes. To answer your question I think it is important to consider two viewpoints: First, from a theoretical point of view, since DNA and RNA are as you pointed out composed of nucleic acids, they both can be mutated if enough energy is provided (UV light, ...


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I have found no evidence that lyophylization of collagen "retains its triple helix." And even if it does, this is not important for its effectiveness, because collagen needs to be digested (broken down) into individual amino acids or peptides before absorption, which means that any triple helix would be be gone at that point. The first step in digestion ...


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In terms of structure: both are composed of amino acids. A peptide is when at least two amino acid are linked together. A protein is composed of multiple amino acids and have a secondary, tertiary and even quaternary structure. In terms of function: larger molecules have more complex functions. Peptides can act as a intracellular or extracellular ligands ...


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