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How can a non-mutagenic agent be carcinogenic? An agent that causes overexpression of oncogenes or inhibition of tumor supressors, would be carcinogenic but not mutagenic. HPV, for instance, produces proteins that cause inactivation and degradation of tumor suppressors, p53 and pRb[1]. Regarding alcohol. As you guessed, alcohol is metabolized to form ...


13

Alcohol itself is non-mutagenic because it does not directly alter DNA. (Additionally ethanol enhances carcinogenesis and is itself not a carcinogen - updated) There are similar non-mutagenic carcinogens such as estrogen - which is a carcinogen. Another important thing to realize is that a non-mutagenic carcinogen may not alter DNA, but instead alter ...


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The ability of bacteria to take up intact environmental DNA is called natural competence. One problem with trying to take advantage of this in a therapy is that it is not very efficient. Importantly, natural competence is regulated and tends to be activated when bacteria are already stressed. This is also likely part of the answer as to why a bacterium ...


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This also lead to the question of whether plasmids can be lethal? Yes, genes in plasmids could be beneficial, neutral or even lethal, although lethal plasmids may have trouble surviving for long since they depend on a live cell for replication. Moreover, if this sort of plasmids exists, then why could we not engineer them specifically and use them as ...


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