45 votes

Effects of mRNA vaccines on human body processes

I can address some of the points made in the post. One point about the "artificiality": I think there's one fact that's often overlooked in the discussion of mRNA vaccines. SARS‑CoV‑2, for ...
panda-byte's user avatar
38 votes
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

It is not only possible, these vaccines are in active development. Biontech (the company which developed the Comirnaty Corona vaccine) was founded to develop vaccines against cancer, Moderna is ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
37 votes
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Answering my own question after reading the 2018 Nature review article “mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology” The resources and motivation engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic are a major factor in ...
hb20007's user avatar
  • 985
15 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

Note: in the time since writing my answer, the paper in question has been retracted. Here's the text of the retraction notice provided by MDPI in collaboration with the authors: The published article ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,296
15 votes

Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

Might not be the answer you're looking for, but there's already a vaccine for one particular type of cancer - cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is largely caused by a virus though (HPV, Human ...
Allure's user avatar
  • 537
14 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

The authors explicitly suggest the first part of your question in their discussion section: indicating that full–length spike–based vaccines may inhibit the recombination of V(D)J in B cells, ...
timeskull's user avatar
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14 votes
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Meaning of "acute LSD"

In the abstract they refer to "acute LSD administration" (emphasis mine), and in the next section of the results after the one you mention in your question, they clarify it as "Acute ...
MattDMo's user avatar
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11 votes

From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

They're both correct. The confusion stems from the book talking about the anticoding strand as well as the newly-formed coding RNA strand, whereas Khan Academy talks only about the coding strand. ...
Thymine's user avatar
  • 259
10 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

I am Rosemarie Swanson, still alive, and yes, the Gray code representation of the codon wheel was my idea. I was trying to develop a linear similarity scale for amino acids. On Thanksgiving of 1977,...
Rosemarie Swanson's user avatar
9 votes
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. Despite this, to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA ...
bob1's user avatar
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8 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

It is very difficult to answer this one for certain but I think the codon wheel representation is sometimes attributed to Rosemarie Swanson who represented the amino acid code using Gray code (or ...
Johnny's user avatar
  • 1,509
8 votes

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

The two stop codons are obviously to prevent read-through of the termination codon. Why this should be necessary is not clear to me, but the following may be relevant: The synthetic mRNA differs ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.7k
8 votes
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How can good Shine–Dalgarno or Kozak sequences enhance translation?

I would strongly recommend looking in more detail into available resources for SD and Kozak sequences, wikipedia basically answers these questions and has plenty of further reading if you desire to ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
8 votes

Why is the codon size three, rather than four?

The reason is pretty simple: It comes from the number of amino acids used to make proteins and thus with the necessary number of possible combinations and robustness of the system. We have 20 amino ...
Chris's user avatar
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7 votes
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DNA & mRNA During Transcription

Transcription occurs in a special structure known as transcription bubble. Inside the bubble are present the mRNA, template DNA being transcribed and the RNA Polymerase. Upstream of bubble is the DNA ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
7 votes
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From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

@Thymine's answer is correct. I just thought I'd post a more graphic answer for clarity. ...
rotaredom's user avatar
  • 2,711
7 votes

Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am asking this question to understand whether the cells which are used to create spike proteins are attacked by the immune system. Yes, that is the aim of RNA vaccinations! But don't worry, that's ...
KaPy3141's user avatar
  • 1,597
7 votes
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How is mRNA made in a lab

In the case of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, the mRNA is synthesized by in vitro transcription. The gene of interest (e.g. the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein) is cloned into a plasmid and transcribed by RNA ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,296
6 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)?

This answer *pre-dates* the others' focus on Rosemarie Swanson The German Wikipedia article for the "code-sun" credits this circular diagram to Carsten Bresch and Rudolf Hausmann1. 1. ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
6 votes

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

As was observed (by others) under related q's here on material from that site, it seems Pfzier/BioNTech has done a global optimization to increase CG contents in the sequence, generally thought to be ...
the gods from engineering's user avatar
6 votes
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

What you describe, creating the spike protein independently and delivering it, is exactly what is done by subunit vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax. As already noted in @...
jakebeal's user avatar
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5 votes

What are the reasons for using oligo-dT instead of oligo-U to isolate mRNAs?

Note - This answer only covers the comparison of rA-dT (RNA:DNA) and rA-rU (RNA:RNA) duplexes, and not more exotic options involving deoxyuridine (dU) and ribothymidine (m5U). I can think of three ...
acvill's user avatar
  • 8,296
5 votes

Why are the other bases not used for RNA capping and tailing?

I don't think definite answers exist but I can think of theoretical reasons: First, Poly A tail can efficiently be synthesized because ATP is the most readily available nTP, being the main energy ...
KaPy3141's user avatar
  • 1,597
5 votes
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

The mRNA won't be entirely perfect, but the imperfections will not matter. The spike protein is big, encoded by thousands of base pairs in the virus. In the virus itself, it's not entirely homogeneous:...
jakebeal's user avatar
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5 votes
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

Nuclear pores control what gets in and out of the nucleus. In general, mRNAs are only allowed out, they don't go back in. Reverse transcriptases, of course, will put mRNA back into DNA, but only ...
swbarnes2's user avatar
  • 5,230
4 votes

How can I find the mRNA sequence for a specific prokaryotic gene?

mRNA specific queries Add this to your NCBI query: AND mrna[filter] If it's not available in major databases it may not be known. However mRNA data can be ...
James's user avatar
  • 11.3k
4 votes
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Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

Concise Answer The 5′-UTR region of a eukaryotic mRNA is derived from the RNA transcript of the region of a gene between the transcription start site and the DNA corresponding to the translational ...
David's user avatar
  • 25.7k
4 votes

What is the Shine–Dalgarno sequence?

According to this Wikipedia article: "The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence is a ribosomal binding site in bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the ...
airhuff's user avatar
  • 290
4 votes

Why is AUG the initiation codon?

From recent empirical research (Wang et al., 2018) on eukaryotes, basically the non-AUG start codons have context-dependent [translation initiation] efficiency, while AUG is a "sure thing", i.e. the ...
the gods from engineering's user avatar

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