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45 votes

Effects of mRNA vaccines on human body processes

I can address some of the points made in the post. One point about the "artificiality": I think there's one fact that's often overlooked in the discussion of mRNA vaccines. SARS‑CoV‑2, for ...
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38 votes
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

It is not only possible, these vaccines are in active development. Biontech (the company which developed the Comirnaty Corona vaccine) was founded to develop vaccines against cancer, Moderna is ...
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37 votes
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Answering my own question after reading the 2018 Nature review article “mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology” The resources and motivation engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic are a major factor in ...
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15 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

While the linked paper presents interesting results, the conclusions must be interpreted in context of their in vitro methods and cannot be readily extrapolated to understand the in vivo effect of ...
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15 votes

Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

Might not be the answer you're looking for, but there's already a vaccine for one particular type of cancer - cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is largely caused by a virus though (HPV, Human ...
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14 votes

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

The authors explicitly suggest the first part of your question in their discussion section: indicating that full–length spike–based vaccines may inhibit the recombination of V(D)J in B cells, ...
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14 votes
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Meaning of "acute LSD"

In the abstract they refer to "acute LSD administration" (emphasis mine), and in the next section of the results after the one you mention in your question, they clarify it as "Acute ...
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11 votes
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How many RNA-binding proteins can simultaneously bind on a single mRNA?

See this paper. They have studied RBP-protected sites in the entire human transcriptome by RNA-protein crosslinking followed by RNAse digestion and sequencing: PIPseq. Figure 1 of the paper shows ...
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11 votes

From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

They're both correct. The confusion stems from the book talking about the anticoding strand as well as the newly-formed coding RNA strand, whereas Khan Academy talks only about the coding strand. ...
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10 votes
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Why do bacteria need messenger RNA?

Ribosomes don't read DNA. Transcription adds several layers of regulation tactics: you can control transcription itself, you can control mRNA. mRNA amplifies genetic information that you need at the ...
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9 votes
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. However to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA molecule,...
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8 votes

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

The two stop codons are obviously to prevent read-through of the termination codon. Why this should be necessary is not clear to me, but the following may be relevant: The synthetic mRNA differs ...
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8 votes
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How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

I would strongly recommend looking in more detail into available resources for SD and Kozak sequences, wikipedia basically answers these questions and has plenty of further reading if you desire to ...
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7 votes
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Mutation That Loses Stop Codon

No, this will not happen. mRNAs are inspected in the nucleus before they are exported into the cytoplasm (at least in eukaryotes), where transcription and translation don't happen at the same place. ...
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7 votes
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DNA & mRNA During Transcription

Transcription occurs in a special structure known as transcription bubble. Inside the bubble are present the mRNA, template DNA being transcribed and the RNA Polymerase. Upstream of bubble is the DNA ...
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7 votes
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From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

@Thymine's answer is correct. I just thought I'd post a more graphic answer for clarity. ...
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7 votes

Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am asking this question to understand whether the cells which are used to create spike proteins are attacked by the immune system. Yes, that is the aim of RNA vaccinations! But don't worry, that's ...
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6 votes
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How to find miRNA binding sites on a specific gene?

There are some tools for predicting the binding: TargetScan (based on seed match [primary], extra pairing, sequence context 1 — nucleotide composition around the site etc [secondary]) miRanda (based ...
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6 votes

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

As was observed (by others) under related q's here on material from that site, it seems Pfzier/BioNTech has done a global optimization to increase CG contents in the sequence, generally thought to be ...
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6 votes
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

What you describe, creating the spike protein independently and delivering it, is exactly what is done by subunit vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax. As already noted in @...
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6 votes
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How is mRNA made in a lab

In the case of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, the mRNA is synthesized by in vitro transcription. The gene of interest (e.g. the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein) is cloned into a plasmid and transcribed by RNA ...
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5 votes
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miRNA targets mRNAs

First you have to define what you really mean by miRNA-X targets mRNA-Y. If you mean direct targeting then there are assays to verify it. To verify if the miRNA can potentially target the mRNA ...
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5 votes

Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)

It is very difficult to answer this one for certain but I think the codon wheel representation is sometimes attributed to Rosemarie Swanson who represented the amino acid code using Gray code (or ...
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5 votes

What are the reasons for using oligo-dT instead of oligo-U to isolate mRNAs?

Note - This answer only covers the comparison of rA-dT (RNA:DNA) and rA-rU (RNA:RNA) duplexes, and not more exotic options involving deoxyuridine (dU) and ribothymidine (m5U). I can think of three ...
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5 votes

Why are the other bases not used for RNA capping and tailing?

I don't think definite answers exist but I can think of theoretical reasons: First, Poly A tail can efficiently be synthesized because ATP is the most readily available nTP, being the main energy ...
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5 votes
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

The mRNA won't be entirely perfect, but the imperfections will not matter. The spike protein is big, encoded by thousands of base pairs in the virus. In the virus itself, it's not entirely homogeneous:...
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4 votes

Mutation That Loses Stop Codon

Yes you are correct. These mRNAs, that lack stop codon will cause translation to continue into the poly-A tail (it will result in addition of lysines not phenylalanine). Since no stop codon is present,...
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  • 35k
4 votes

Why is AUG the initiation codon?

From recent empirical research (Wang et al., 2018) on eukaryotes, basically the non-AUG start codons have context-dependent [translation initiation] efficiency, while AUG is a "sure thing", i.e. the ...
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4 votes

How can 3' end polyadenylation protect cellular RNA from ribonuclease degridation?

According to my book Molecular Biology Principles of Genome Function by Craig et al, eukaryotic RNA degradation does not have an initiation, as in bacteria where pyrophoasphate hydrolase hydrolyses ...
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