22

This is actually not a gall as other answers have suggested. This is likely a fungus called Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae). The fungus only thrives in the presence of both Juniperus virginiana (Eastern red cedar) and apple (Malus spp.) trees. The leaf in the picture belongs to some species of the apple genus and the growths are ...


17

When spores germinate, they do not generate mushrooms directly, but haploid mycelium starts to grow. Only when the mycelium from spores with the other mating type is met, cells fuse and generate diploid mycelium, from which mushrooms can grow. Fairy rings are caused by a radial outgrowth pattern of the diploid mycelium, followed by resource depletion in the ...


17

Looks very similar to Clathrus ruber fungus. Be careful, it is poisonous.


17

One of the most common toxins in mouldy food/bread is aflatoxin. The exposure to high amount of aflatoxin can lead to acute aflatoxicosis with fulminant hepatic failure and even death. While mild exposure to aflatoxin could be asymptomatic, it is better not to take a chance considering possible complications (citation from the link above): Aflatoxins ...


16

The whole process is called osmosis. In it there is the flow of liquid along a concentration gradient. Water then flows from the side which contains the low concentration of dissolved molecules (this can be salts or sugar for example) to the side with the higher concentration until it reached equilibrium. This principle is shown in the image below (all ...


15

When a fungal spore germinates in a suitable location, the growing mycelium will spread underground in all directions. In the ideal situation, the result is that the mycelium will become circular. Over time, the center of the mycelium will die out whereas the newly formed mycelium (underground) will develop the familiar mushrooms above ground and this will ...


13

In addition, the mycelia (the underground mass of hyphae which constitutes the bulk of the fungus) expand outwards because they decompose organic matter in soil as they go, leaving very little organic matter in the soil in the interior of the ring. My Campbell & Reece textbook tells me that they can expand outwards at about 30 cm/yr. (1) (1) Campbell, N....


13

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List there are many endangered fungi, but none that are documented to have become extinct within the time frame of interest to you. However, it seems likely that some fungi have gone extinct with their plant hosts — according to the IUCN there have been 133 documented extinctions of plant ...


11

Identified Species: Clathrus ruber Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Phallales Family: Phallaceae Genus: Clathrus Species: C. ruber Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrus_ruber


10

There is both a set "list" of agents, but more importantly, a set of properties that an organism needs to be in order to be truly worrisome. First, the list: The CDC classifies agents into one of three categories, Class A, B, or C. Class A: These are organisms that are hard to control, highly transmissible, and lethal: Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ...


10

Yes. One example is of a fungus named Prototaxites. It was originally thought to be a tree, but it was a massive, tree-like fungus.


10

No. Evidence: If you go to the TreeGenes site and examine those tree genomes that have been sequenced you won’t find any fungal chromosome sequences. (And vice versa.) Reason: Although trees and mushrooms may develop symbiotic relationships they are independently viable (at least the trees), and even two organisms that can only survive in a symbiotic ...


9

It is hard to find any articles on the association between Penicillium and Aspergillus species, although they are both considered two of the most common mold species found indoors. In this study, the most prevalent spore types detected in both the indoor and outdoor air samples were generally from the Penicillium/Aspergillus group [...] these findings are ...


9

My answer won't apply if your plant isn't a cycad (a species from the genus Cycas) as only cycads are affected. Cycad aren't native to the Dominican Republic but have been planted as ornamentals in many parts of the world. If your plant's a cycad, I'm convinced that what your plant has is NOT a fungal but insect infection - something far more serious for ...


9

Good question. And good analysis. I have little to add! I'll simply provide my own list of thoughts to complement your ideas, which are not mutually exclusive. The fact that it wasn't discarded during the course of the species' evolution suggests it must have offered some benefit. This statement is speculative. The key word here is suggests. i can ...


8

There were some experiments done in microgravity in longer space shuttle missions. The reports show that the fungi develop relatively normal but grow in random orientations instead of orientating upwards. See this images: The upper image shows fungi grown on earth which are subjected to normal gravity. The lower image shows fungi (actually only the fruiting ...


8

Short Answer No, your Tuckahoe species is likely Wolfiporia extensa. Long Answer Well, it sounds like there is some colloquial contradictions. It could also be Peltandra virginica, which also has the common name tuckahoe. This is an emergent perennial herb growing from a large rhizome and producing many large leaves. An individual leaf may have ...


7

Generally, fungi are cultured on agar with a food source such as malt extract. One way to do this is to clone a mushroom from the fruitbody of a mushroom or from colonized substrate (e.g. rotting wood). Another approach is to germinate spores. The fungus will grow as vegetative mycelia until it runs out of food. At that time, some species will grow tiny ...


7

The same reason some plants are poisonous: to stop animals from eating them. The visible part of the fungus is called, rather misleadingly, the fruiting body. It exists to produce and spread spores and thus produce the next fungal generation. Getting eaten, rather obviously, inhibits its ability to do this. Being poisonous discourages animals from eating ...


7

I am pretty sure that it is a moldy core rot which would be caused by a fungus that infects the apple during the flowering stage. The fungi is also referred to as "apple fuzz". From SF Gate fungus sometimes does enter apples at the blossom end and damage the core, especially if weather is wet, a condition called "moldy core," From PennStateExtension ...


7

The tree is dying. From what you say, it has no leaves wduring a time it should, it has saprophitic growth along the trunk; it looks like there's a crack in the bark on the right, and there are shoots coming up from the base of the trunk, the last hurrah from the tree to try to regenerate. Trees send up suckers as a reaction to stress (like slowly dying). ...


7

Again, I would say: no, genus is not enough. Another example: boletes (specifically, genus Boletus). According to Wilderness College: One of the most common and well-known groups of edible wild mushrooms are the boletes or boletus species (Boletaceae) ... But Many species in this group are edible, with only a handful being poisonous. The poisonous ...


7

Might as well make this an answer. ...it seems to collapse when I rub my foot on it. As @tyersome stated, it appears to be salt, not mold. Salt crystals would definitely collapse easily underfoot, and should be mostly quite dry, whereas mold would be... maybe squishy (?) but likely unpleasant in some way. Mold also smells, which you haven't mentioned, ...


6

Here is a link to an interesting article which reports a survey of wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in China. Wang, Qi-Ming, et al. (2012) Surprisingly diverged populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in natural environments remote from human activity. Mol Ecol 21: 5404-5417 A relevant quotation from the article: In addition to grapes and oak ...


6

Here's a bit of additional information (Although there's an answer from Ilan that satisfied you.) Is it the mould itself that makes us sick or is it something that the mould is releasing? What are the mechanisms that cause us to feel sick after eating mouldy food? The USDA says that there can also be bacteria along with the mould on the ...


6

Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of fungi. Fungi get their energy by decomposing dead or decaying organic material, such as fallen leaves or dung. Some background: spores of fungi germinate forming mycelia consisting of threadlike hyphae. When the hyphae of different fungi meet, they may have sex and form mushrooms. The mushrooms produce the spores. See ...


6

This is not a moss, but a fungus of the family Clavariaceae. Most likely this is Clavaria zollingeri, commonly known as violet coral, but there are a few resembling species. Microscopy might be needed to be entirely sure. The species is saprotrophic, so it grows on the woody debris in your picture.


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