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You are right in a sense. The processes which generate mutations in an organism are stochastic (not quite exactly random, but in most organisms they are effectively random for all intents and purposes). In terms of population genetics, it is considered that mutations occur randomly across the genome and have an equal probability of occurring at a given base ...


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This question seems to be about negative/purifying selection, judging by the wikipedia quote. Positive selection can often (but not always) occur more slowly in smaller populations, but 'efficiency/effectiveness' of selection generally means the rate at which deleterious variants are purged from the population, so I'll skip out taking about positive ...


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