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In biology, functional unit of a system refers to the smallest structural element that is capable of performing the tasks typical for that system (MP Hlastala, Physiology of Respiration). In the nervous system, a neuron is usually considered a functional unit, because it is capable of performing the basic task of this system, that is transmitting signals. ...


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"Functional unit" doesn't have a very specific meaning. It's mostly a term used to help biology students imagine organs as collections of parts. The entities named functional units in a textbook don't typically perform every single function of a whole organ. A cardiomyocyte, for example, is a functional unit of the heart. It can perform really important ...


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First about the terms: The outer side of the cranial bones is covered by a single layer of periosteum that is specifically called pericranium. The inner side of the cranial bones is covered by dura mater that has 2 layers: the periosteal (or sometimes called endosteal) layer that is attached to the inner side of the bones the meningeal layer that covers ...


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The mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth. To subserve this reflex protective function, mechanoreceptive nerves in the periodontal ligament sense tooth movement and project to the ...


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It is confusing. The septum pellucidium is a thin membrane separating the left and right lateral ventricles. It contains white matter (nerve fibers), blood vessels and a few neurons. It has traditionally been thought of as just a separating membrane, but the fibers running through it connect to the hippocampus and hypothalamus and so it is probably a ...


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On Neuroimaging Analysis But being highlighted means being active (at least more active than other regions) This is not the case in functional connectivity analysis, or indeed not necessarily the case in any sort of functional neuroimaging analysis. The colormap highlighting in such images as you referred to (see the primary reference for that particular ...


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The hippocampus is considered archicortex rather than neocortex. Sometimes hippocampus is considered "sub-cortical" but I think this is only really fair if you really mean "sub-neocortical"; it's common for "cortical" to be used as a shorthand for neocortex in human neurobiology. Writers will be more specific when necessary. The piriform cortex and related ...


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The heart of course does have Alpha 2 pre synaptic receptors , the definition states that alpha 2 receptors are present on sympathetic postganglionic endings , so I don't see why heart should be an exception . I will explain to you how reflex tachycardia occurs . When you give non selective blockers , presynaptic Alpha 2 are blocked , therefore the pre ...


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Not all hormones enter the blood - just as a quick addendum to the thorough reply above, and as per a comment above stating not all hormones from neuroendocrine cells go into circulation - seems to be true: many of the neuroendocrine cells release hormones directly into the organ where those cells appear - as per the gut, heart, lungs - here's a nice visual ...


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