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The main family of calcium-gated channels I am aware of are the calcium-gated potassium channels - you could start from that linked Wikipedia article. I wouldn't really make these a fourth category, they should either be thought of as voltage-gated channels that are modulated by intracellular calcium, or as ligand-gated channels - the ligand just happens to ...


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This is just my personal opinion and impression: First, it's not at all clear which effects burst firing of action potentials of a pre-synaptic neuron do have at the synaptic end bulbs: Does it cause a burst of fusions of vesicles and thus a burst of releases of neurotransmitters? Or isn't the intricate firing pattern completely smeared and blurred at the ...


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Short answer Retinal center-surround receptive fields are an example of lateral inhibition. It occurs elsewhere in the nervous system too. Background Center-surround receptive fields are indeed an example of lateral inhibition, where the ON field suppress the OFF field through lateral inhibition. The center-surround connectivity in the retina (Fig. 1) is ...


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Short answer Although outside my direct area of expertise, there is quite a lot of literature on the topic. The trick often is to use the correct keywords. Key in "recording + stimulating + ensemble + neurons", or "Utah + neuron + implant". Background There is quite some literature on this topic. For instance, a much used device in this arena is the Utah ...


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I don't get to say this on very many occasions with questions like this... Your textbook is wrong. A typical potassium reversal potential in a cell is ~-90 mV. Hyperpolarization through voltage-gated potassium channels can never go more negative than that reversal potential. An experimenter with access to the cell through a patch clamp electrode could ...


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