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In biology, functional unit of a system refers to the smallest structural element that is capable of performing the tasks typical for that system (MP Hlastala, Physiology of Respiration). In the nervous system, a neuron is usually considered a functional unit, because it is capable of performing the basic task of this system, that is transmitting signals. ...


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"Functional unit" doesn't have a very specific meaning. It's mostly a term used to help biology students imagine organs as collections of parts. The entities named functional units in a textbook don't typically perform every single function of a whole organ. A cardiomyocyte, for example, is a functional unit of the heart. It can perform really important ...


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First about the terms: The outer side of the cranial bones is covered by a single layer of periosteum that is specifically called pericranium. The inner side of the cranial bones is covered by dura mater that has 2 layers: the periosteal (or sometimes called endosteal) layer that is attached to the inner side of the bones the meningeal layer that covers ...


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By "cerebrum" I assume you really mean the cerebral neocortex, since the cerebrum includes other subcortical structures that themselves are quite distinct (e.g., the basal ganglia). Simply, the neocortex and cerebellum have completely different functions. The cerebellum performs a particular class of computations that are very different from the variety of ...


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If the sources have different locations then they won't reach the 2 ears at the same time, won't have the same loudness and spectral content (although here you describe a pure tone), so your brain will be able to tell them apart. There is a whole field of neuroscience interested in "causal inference", which describes how your brain makes this type of guesses....


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Integrating the information from @WYSIWYG's excellent answer, it appears the dopaminerig neuron count lies at: 4k for mice - Triarhou, 1988 10k for rats - German and Manaye, 1993 250k-440k for humans - Rice et al, 2016


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