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Many invertebrates possess myelin. It is a misconception that invertebrates lack myelin. The world speed record for a traveling bioelectric signal is held by the myelinated axons in the abdomen of the Penaeus shrimp! Please take a look at this website or this review to find a highly recommended comprehensive website about invertebrate myelin from about a ...


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Short answer Retinal center-surround receptive fields are an example of lateral inhibition. It occurs elsewhere in the nervous system too. Background Center-surround receptive fields are indeed an example of lateral inhibition, where the ON field suppress the OFF field through lateral inhibition. The center-surround connectivity in the retina (Fig. 1) is ...


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The main families of calcium-gated channels I am aware of are the calcium-gated potassium channels and the internal ryanodine receptors involved in calcium-induced calcium release - you could start from those linked Wikipedia articles. I wouldn't really make these a fourth category, they should either be thought of as voltage-gated channels that are ...


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This review article [1] gives dopamine responses for rats (similar to the BBC article above) and includes references to the underlying studies: Sex/Food: 150% - 300% Alcohol/Ethanol: 190% (1g/kg) * Morphine: 200% (1mg/kg) * Nicotine: 220% (0.6mg/kg) * Cocaine: 350% (5mg/kg) Methamphetamine: 1000% (1mg/kg) These are percentages of the baseline ...


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The minimal neural mechanisms that are jointly sufficient for consciousness (conscious percept, thought, memory, etc.) to occur, under constant background conditions, are called the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) [1]. The background conditions are enabling factors that must be present for the NCC to be able to function (e.g., the heart must beat ...


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From the source you provided, the answers seem to be outlined well from the authors' sentence that states: The Pr [release probability] of SVs [synaptic vesicles] at the AZ [active zone] is set by a complex interplay of different presynaptic properties including the availability of release-ready SVs, the location of the SVs relative to the voltage-gated ...


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Short answer Although outside my direct area of expertise, there is quite a lot of literature on the topic. The trick often is to use the correct keywords. Key in "recording + stimulating + ensemble + neurons", or "Utah + neuron + implant". Background There is quite some literature on this topic. For instance, a much used device in this arena is the Utah ...


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Key points: Neurotransmitters directly stimulate or inhibit ionotropic receptors (the receptors of ion channels) in the postsynaptic membrane within a single synapse. Neuromodulators act on metabotropic receptors within or outside the synapses of many neurons at the same time; they modulate the release of neurotransmitters and excitability of ionotropic ...


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EM is Electron Microscopy; the definition is found earlier in the passage in the normal form where the whole term is given followed by the abbreviation in quotes; you should look for this in the future. ...suited to connectomic approaches using electron microscopy (EM; Lacalli, 2009). I'm not super familiar with invertebrate morphology, but from context ...


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In a nutshell, I would say neurons do have "specific instructions." However, it isn't so much "ignore netrin X amount then stop." It's more like "express receptors 1, 30, 48, and 62" which as a unique combination gets the growth cone where its going and prevents it from forming an erroneous connection along the way. I've provided more context below that ...


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