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In my naive understanding, a neuron was inhibitory or excitatory depending on the neurotransmitter it releases onto its postsynaptic partners. This is mostly correct. What remains a question is what makes a given neurotransmitter inhibitory or excitatory. To some extent, that depends on the post-synaptic receptors, but also depends on other conditions: one ...


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Of course. There is a famous set of experiments (Milner & Olds) in biology that basically started modern behavioral research in which a wire was inserted in to a rats brain allowing for direct electrical stimulation of the pleasure center. as long as the current continued the rats experienced extremely high levels of pleasure. To the point they were ...


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Post-synaptic vs pre-synaptic inhibition Yes, inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) are always in the context of post-synaptic inhibition, because they are post-synaptic potentials. They occur because of inhibitory neurotransmitters (for example, GABA) are released and bind to post-synaptic receptors, particularly ligand-gated chloride channels. We ...


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Synapses are held together by adhesion molecules, like cadherins and neuroligins/neurexins, so they aren't just loose adjacent membrane, they are securely anchored in place. The adhesion molecules serve both a structural and regulatory role, being important for synapse formation and plasticity. Missler, M., Südhof, T. C., & Biederer, T. (2012). ...


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Short answer would be yes. There are very simple examples such as responses to sudden bright lights controlled in the Trigeminal nerve bundle to constrict pupils. Visual reflexes are interesting because it can frequently involve a neuron crossover in the nerve bundle. This would be an inappropriate reflex due to a stimuli. The most common being suddenly ...


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What we call pleasure is effectively the way that we have evolved brains that learn to do what promotes survival and reproduction. Animals get pleasure when we do things that contribute to our survival and reproduction, like eating certain foods or mating; this makes animals (including humans) tend to repeat the behaviors that led to those rewards (of course,...


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About biological electrical potentials generally Biological potentials on the order of tens of millivolts depend on very very few ions moving (about 1/100,000 of the potassium concentration, for example, for a typical neuronal potential). Therefore, the sum of positive and negative charges in any compartment is always almost zero (to several decimal places ...


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