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During development of the brain neurons undergo several steps of differentiation. They transition from neuronal progenitors to mature neurons, resulting in different types of neurons, characterized most prominently by their primary neurotransmitter. During the differentiation, different genes are expressed, which in research is used to label specific cell ...


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Here's an article I found that seems to attempt to address this question, using a kind of machine-learning approach involving "Long Short-Term Memory" (LSTM)-Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), to classify EEG from participants who were watching either "easy" or "difficult" online lectures - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620019/ . It's not a ...


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Aside from autapses and pacemaking cells, there are also some kinds of sensory neurons that exhibit a spontaneous resting (constantly depolarizing) activity that helps with encoding stimuli. The benefit of having constant activity is that stimuli can further excite or inhibit this activity, and this can be valuable information. Sensory neurons such as ...


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Whatever is the exact definition of the threshold that the Olympic committee sets, it's going to be relatively arbitrary and unfair to some people. When it comes down to it, biology is generally messy and blurry, and that includes matters of sex and gender. Thus, even if most people cluster in a fairly straightforward manner into male and female, there are ...


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Expanding on @Frieke's answer, evolution often adapts old functions for new processes. So, just as how membrane polarization is useful in unicellular organisms (Irazoqui and Lew, 2004) but can be exploited for neuronal depolarization, vesicular release also has unicellular prototypes (Oliveira et al., 2010) that preface eukaryotic neurotransmitter release. ...


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