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'Peri' = 'in the region of' 'soma' = 'cell body' so the perisomatic region is the area in the region of the cell body - I thought the breakdown might be useful in future as 'peri' is used a lot.


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Some of the work of Bob Trivers makes some sense to me. He talks about parental investment https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental_investment. The "investment" of a man could be as little as paying for dinner, followed by a few minutes of sexual pleasure, and then he is free to go. The woman's investment for the same thing is the risk of pregnancy (or cryptic ...


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Neurotransmitters are secreted by the nerve cells and act directly on other nerve cells, muscle cells or glands (like adrenal medulla) via synapses, so they travel "short distance" (nanometers). Endocrine glands secrete substances (mainly hormones) into the blood by which they travel "long distance" to the target organs. Neurotransmitters are quick (...


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Short answer Synaptic signaling can be seen as a type of paracrine signaling, and is hence not an example of an endocrine system. Background Khan Academy has a nice accessible overview on this confusing topic: Paracrine signaling Signalling between nearby cells that are near one another van occur through the release of chemical messengers that diffuse ...


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Sodium channels are primarily voltage-gated - these are the channels responsible for action potentials. Many other receptors are ligand-gated, and these are typically the signal that causes the initial voltage change that opens the voltage-gated sodium channels; however, these channels are less selective cation channels and are permeable to ions like ...


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There is growing evidence that loss of learning capacity is not primarily age related Below are just a few articles on this topic... I know there's more. The short answer is, there is growing evidence that the loss of memory and learning capabilities is NOT a foregone conclusion of aging by itself, but is, in fact, a byproduct of other health issues, ...


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The answer(s) to this question can fill libraries. But I can give a few pointers here, as the question is relevant and timely, giving the tendency to an ever increasing life expectancy of the general populace in developed countries (notable exception: US). I think your question can broadly be answered by the fact that degenerative processes in the brain ...


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Astrocyte‐to‐astrocyte contact and a positive feedback loop of growth factor signaling regulate astrocyte maturation (29 April 2019) by Jiwen Li, Rana R. Khankan, Christine Caneda, Marlesa I. Godoy, Michael S. Haney, Mitchell C. Krawczyk, Michael C. Bassik, Steven A. Sloan, Ye Zhang Published 'Glia' This appears to give me the details I required. ...


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In short: skipping a meal lowers blood glucose levels, which can reduce cognitive performance, for example, memory. Let's say that between meals you are in fasting state for 8 hours during which you do some desk work and some moderate exercise for 1.5 hours. With such level of physical activity, your last meal and your glycogen stores should provide enough ...


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Here a clear explanation, cheers! https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000302.g001


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