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Voltage-gated sodium channels have three basic states that represent different conformations of the protein: closed, open, and inactivated. When a voltage-gated sodium channel is open at depolarized voltage, there is space for part of the channel to shift into a position that blocks the pore. When this happens, it gets stuck blocking the flow of sodium, and ...


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For this answer, I'll use a very broad definition of "buffer" as a mechanism to integrate information at different delays. I have no interest in getting into specific computer science definitions of what a buffer is and I don't think it makes any sense to use them in biology. Parallel processing and predictive coding The brain is a massively ...


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Your two arguments are actually the same The import point you are missing about the algorithm approach of optimizing a genome is it optimizes for the environment it was cycled through in the past. the laws of physics have been constant through those generations so the system becomes optimized for the laws of physics. Well optimized for physics at the scale ...


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