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The situation is quite reminiscent of a Voltage clamp experiment (Fig. 1), where one amplifier (amplifier 1 in Fig. 1) records the potential difference (V1 - V2 in Fig. 1) between two electrodes and the other opamp (2) is used to inject current (I2 in Fig. 1) to 'clamp' the system at a particular voltage using a computerized feedback system. The potential ...


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The brain is massively parallel. There are a lot of recurrent connections and feedback loops that are important for setting expectations, building a model of the world, and learning, but the pathway for stimulus to response is quite simple. It has to be, because if you are slow you die. For example, a commonly used psychophysical task is to detect a motion ...


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The circuit is typically made with one or more "ground" wires for EEG, though it's possible to use other EEG contacts as references (more often this is done virtually - the original recordings are made and digitized with a common ground, and later an average reference or Laplacian is used to isolate more local signals). EEG measures extremely weak ...


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It's not a stupid question in my opinion. However, it is perhaps naive. Brain function is very complex and how the different parts of the brain exactly relate to memory and function is still being worked out. We can monitor neural activity outside the brain by a number of methods. The most common one you might have come across is an electroencephalogram (EEG)...


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