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A clarification on introns and exons. While it is true that introns are not a part of the mRNA as March Ho said, they are essentially transcribed. This may seem trivial but it is important to note. So: Both introns and exons arise from the transcribed region Exons need not necessarily form the ORF (i.e. be translated to proteins) Regarding intronic RNAs: ...


6

While Ankur's answer is correct, it must be noted that not all non-coding RNAs are introns. An intron must be excised from an mRNA, which therefore means that any non-coding RNA that is not part of an mRNA cannot be an intron. For example, rRNA and tRNA are all examples of non-coding RNAs that are not introns, since they are not part of mRNA. miRNA may ...


5

Most the genome is not coding for proteins. Here is a pie chart of what the human genome is made of As you can see, only 1.5% of the human genome codes for proteins. The term gene is often a bit vaguely defined but if we assume that a gene is all the exons, all the introns and all the regulatory sequences, then 25.5% of the human genome are genes. So, yes ...


5

Mice are mammals, like humans, so their proteins tend to show more homology with human proteins than non-mammalian options. They are also actually more closely related to humans than cats or dogs due to the relatively recent (~80 million year) separation of lineages that led to modern rodents and primates. Mice breed fairly quickly year-round and have ...


3

A note on nomenclature in modern biology As it stands, this question seems to assume there is some legal commission, Académie française, or the like that is devoted to continually determining scientific nomenclature, and that those in the field obediently follow it. While organizations like IUPAC — The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry — do ...


3

So if siRNA appears to be just a subtype of miRNA, can we confirm that? Or are there any other differences that make these two molecules different kinds of small non-coding RNAs? siRNA and miRNA are not identical, but similar. It's not incorrect to consider them similar phenomena in biology, but history places them apart and there exist small ...


3

With many non-coding RNAs, the RNA is the functional endpoint. Therefore, ncRNA "expression" simply refers to the production of that functional component. Similarly to with proteins, this involves looking at differential tissue production of that noncoding RNA (i.e. in which tissues the RNA is produced). Gene expression is defined in the Oxford Dictionary ...


3

Small non-coding RNAs are NOT generally abbreviated as sRNA but as sncRNA, if anything. I say "if anything" because the "small" part is subjective and just a portmanteau descriptor. The straight answer to your question is as Forest has written: miRNAs are a specific type of small non-coding RNA, some of which appear to function in the regulation of gene ...


2

miRNA are one member of the small non-coding RNA family. "Small non-coding" is a pretty broad term that encompasses microRNA and short interfering RNA, among other regulatory RNA species. The key word is 'regulatory'; each type of small non-coding RNA works by binding complementary sequences to exert some sort of regulatory control over gene expression. ...


2

Yup - in a lot of cases the transcription of non-coding RNAs is from introns. Some of them are within genes (intragenic) and others are intergenic (between genes). In humans, a large number of both have been documented http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n3/full/ng.3192.html Coming to your question about why they are not transcribed - it again comes down ...


2

Usually the tracrRNA is a part of the CRISPR locus and is encoded in the the vicinity of the CRISPR array (e.g. upstream or downstream of the cas genes or the array). http://www.genome-engineering.org/crispr/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/crispr_processing1.jpg


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snRNA: small nuclear ribonucleic acid snRNP: small nuclear ribonucleoprotein snRNA refers to the RNA itself. snRNP refers to snRNA complexed with some protein(s). You could call spliceosomal RNA either depending on the context.


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First time I actually hear the word alarmone so bear with me okay? "An Alarmone is an intracellular signal molecule that is produced due to harsh environmental factors. They regulate the gene expression at transcription level" <- this probably refers to activating/inhibiting transcription factors and stuff like that. Looking at bit further into the ...


1

According to the most recent paper (https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbx014), CIRI2 shows a balanced performance on sensitivity and FDR. "Computational detection methods have been widely used in studies on the biogenesis and the function of circular RNAs (circRNAs). However, all of the existing tools showed disadvantages on certain aspects of circRNA detection. ...


1

Answers Possibly, but with such a low frequency as to be unimportant and undetectable. (Monkeys with typewriters producing Shakespeare’s Hamlet comes to mind.) No. Because it would be extremely difficult to detect, it would seem to be of no importance if it did occur at a very low frequency (you make no suggestion of why it would be of interest) and ...


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They queried publications dealing with the lncRNA that studied whether it was functional through over-expression or knockdown. Cells do something measurable in their normal state, that can be observed through microscopy, qPCR, microarray, etc. You use the data as a control which to compare experimental results against. For an over-expression study, for ...


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