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Q: The report indicated the patient was awake seconds after the spray was administered to both nostrils. If this is true, how does it work so fast? This is possibly an exaggeration, although intranasal Narcan can have a rapid clinical response time: Tania Mieke Robertson, Gregory W. Hendey, Geoff Stroh & Marc Shalit, Intranasal Naloxone Is a Viable ...


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Specific parts — moieties — of an agonist molecule bind to the receptor protein, causing the receptor to change shape, which in turn initiates a signaling pathway inside the cell. Some agonists are better at causing the receptor to change to its "optimal shape" for relaying signal. These are called "full agonists". Other agonists cause a partial change in ...


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An antagonist is a substance that blocks a particular pathway (a receptor). You can therefore test whether a particular drug acts through the opioid system by using an opioid antagonist. If your substance still works despite the presence of the antagonist (which should block the opoiod receptors), you can conclude that it is not working thorough the opioid ...


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Conductance is the inverse of resistance, and measures how much of a given substance flows throught a channel. In this context, it means how many calcium ions enter the cell in a period of time. There are at least two ways potassium channels may prevent the calcium to enter in the cell. 1) Potassium intake by ion channels decrease the membrane potential, ...


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What many drugs and compounds do is bind to cell receptors. These receptors then change shape and various things may happen in the cell as a result (including relaying a message to other cells). Something that binds to a receptor and causes activity is called an agonist. Something that binds to a receptor and causes a partial response is called a partial ...


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I think you are confusing potency with receptor affinity. The (unsourced) numbers you indicate appear to be DEA-style "potency", which probably refer to the effective dose (of some kind). The fentanyl to morphine ratio on the κ-opioid receptor affinity, from human studies is only 1.35 to 1.14 (on average). In contrast the N-methyl fentanyl is estimated ...


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This paper was looking at inhibition of dynorphin converting enzymes and their importance. Although they don't seem to know if it is a single enzyme, or if it is multiple enzymes. This paper looked at bikunin as an endogenous inhibitor of dynorphin convertase in human cerebrospinal fluid. This paper looked at several inhibitors (some of which are known to ...


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Closest I reached: Source: Page 105, The Complete Recovery, By Anthea Hatfield Google Book


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