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It will depend on how quickly the salinity is raised and to what level. Two studies (Karraker 2007, Karraker et al. 2008) looked at the effects of road salt (used to reduce icing on roads in winter) in the spotted salamander, the wood frog (a small frog), and the green frog (a big frog). Their studies showed that survival decreased, especially for larval ...


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I contacted Richard Pillans, the primary author of the article linked to in the question. He told me that he did not know whether the rectal gland was reduced. Researchers are hesitant to capture and dissect the freshwater sharks because of their endangered status.   He did tell me that they have gathered much more data on the movement of the sharks since ...


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cool pics! Firstly, Formadahyde is a terribly toxic substance. Skin Contact: CORROSIVE. Contact can cause pain, redness, burns, and blistering. Permanent scarring can result. Can be absorbed through the skin. Formaldehyde causes organ failure and scarring if ingested. In this case, since you don't have burning or blistering, it seems like a ...


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You're correct that tonicity needs two solutions to define. Osmolarity (or osmotic concentration) is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles of solute per litre (L) of solution (Osm/L). Tonicity, on the other hand, refers to the relative concentration of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. The difference is ...


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Normally, epithelial cells of mucous membranes express a chloride ion channel that allows movement of Cl- down its electrochemical gradient and out of the cell. This increase in extracellular electrolytes draws water out of the cells by osmosis, hydrating the mucus. In cystic fibrosis, this protein is defective, most commonly caused by misfolding and ...


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There is no 100 % sure answer for this as, obviously, nobody is that much interested in studying about urination. But there are some theories, of which the most popular and accepted one is cold diuresis. Cold-induced diuresis, or cold diuresis, is a phenomenon that occurs in humans after exposure to a hypothermic environment, usually during mild to ...


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Peptidoglycan is formed by the linkage of molecules of NAM ( N-acetylmuramic acid) and NAG (N-acetylglucosamine) into a polysaccharide structure. Many of these structures are then formed into a lattice by crossbridges of polypeptides. In gram + bacterial cell walls many layers of this lattice are stacked up forming a rigid structure, that is external to ...


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In terms of taxonomy and morphology: Although coconut trees display considerable morphological diversity, they are considered taxonomically a single species (and the only species) within the genus Cocos. Based on stature and breeding, coconut cultivars can be divided into two groups: tall and dwarf. The former typically grows up to 35 to 40 meters ...


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The article at linked at the bottom says that the marine organisms keep the concentration of Ammonia under very strict control. pH of the ECF (Extra Cellular Fluid) is said to play a very important role. The concentration of ammonia in the environment (ambient ammonia levels) also plays an important role. Less importantly temperature also plays a role. ...


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When you dissolve something in water, you build a solvation shell around this - so each ion (in the case of salts) gets surrounded by a number of water molecules. For more details read this Wikipedia article. The concentration change in free water molecules is usually not taken into account since it can be neglected due to the vast number of "unbound" ...


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