11

Short answer There is no evidence whatsoever that the parasitic arthropod Cymothoa exigua develops itself into a functional tongue. Instead, it consumes the fish's tongue and occupies the freed buccal space to continue feeding onto the fish's blood or mucus. Background The linked wikipedia page that states that Cymothoa exigua arthropods form fully ...


10

Plasmodium falciparum (the main causative agent of malaria) and other Plasmodium species have a very complex life cycle, with stages in the female host Anopheles mosquito, in the human liver, and in the human circulatory system, where it primarily resides in the erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs): During a blood meal, a malaria-infected mosquito ...


9

No, Naegleria fowleri is a free-living excavate form of protist that lives in warm fresh water. Fowleri finds its way into the brain by eating through the olfactory neurons in the nose where it multiplies itself greatly by feeding on nerve tissue. Once it penetrates the nervous tissue, fowleri's feeding results in significant necrosis of and hemorrhaging ...


7

Found it. It's a Sarcodes or snow plant: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcodes


6

Good question. There is no fundamental difference between parasites and predators. Ecological Interaction In terms of ecological interaction, they are both defined as an interaction where one species benefits and the other suffers from the interaction. Intuition parasite vs predator In general predation is viewed as a big individual eating a smaller ...


6

Parasitism – a parasite that lives on or in an host, obtaining food from the host and harming it. Example: Ixodes ticks use white tailed deer as a host Parasite is smaller and weaker than the host Parasite may feed over the host from outside or inside In parasite-host relationship a weaker organism is benefitted Host specificity is more common The host ...


5

In my own opinion, I would not classify this as parasitism, as more unpalatable species are eaten with Batesian mimicry (and eating causes death). Parasitic organisms often do not kill the host, whereas in this case, it does. However, you are correct in stating that a unpalatable species with aposematic coloring is detrimented by the presence of a palatable ...


4

Just to add to Christiaan's excellent answer: The authors of his cited study state: [the tongues] replacement by a parasite would not appear to be a complex phenomenon. Implying that this is a very basic process, according to what they observed. To answer your question as it was posed: Wikipedia states the tongue becomes fully functional. The authors ...


4

In an environment where all plants are resistant to certain parasites, a rare breed which has a mechanism against this resistance has free play - lots of food and no competition. However, in plants which do not have the resistance, this rare parasite breed may be at a disadvantage compared to parasites who do not have the mechanism against that resistance (...


3

A chemist's perspective: Ethanol and water are miscible, meaning they are perfectly soluble in one another in all proportions. So given enough time, the alcohol will likely seep into the tissues and cells of the meat, and some water will seep out into the surrounding alcohol bath. The liquids might not equilibrate very well on a reasonable time scale, that ...


3

The cuckoo chick hatches earlier and instinctively pushes the host eggs out of the nest. If you view this from the genetic perspective of the crow, it becomes the foster parent of offspring that does not carry its genes. The harm, therefore, is to the host's passing on of genes, rather than to the immediate health or well-being of the individual. For more ...


3

You could have asked a similar question about splicing. The function of RNA editing seems to be similar: it's one of the ways to trigger production of alternative transcripts and proteins given the same DNA sequence. The question is discussed, for example, in this review. The authors describe different known effects of alternative RNA editing: Amino-acid ...


3

From what I know of ant-Acacia mutualisms, I've never heard of an ant gall in an Acacia. The link in your question also never mentions a gall. You've likely confused either domatia or Beltian bodies as a gall. Both differ greatly from galls in that domatia or Beltian bodies are created by the plant and not by the insect. Domatia are small plant-made ...


3

I think the wikipedia article defining parasitoids has it right on this one. The term is, and should be flexible and it's definition defined by context. i.e Case by case definitions are made obvious in the literature. Patently there is no point to trying to draw arbitrary lines of distinction between such vague, and often variable, life histories. In each ...


3

No. Although malaria is transmitted through the saliva of a female Anopheles mosquito, it stays in the bloodstream and doesn't pass over to the saliva of humans (otherwise it probably would be transmittable via humans directly). Once the parasites travel to the liver, it infects and bursts hepatocytes after reproducing (asexually). The burst cells then ...


3

Short answer: 50-60 µM O2 is ok; 80 µM is toxic. Giardia lamblia (aka intestinalis) is a microaerophilic intestinal parasite. According to: Lloyd et al. (2000) The microaerophilic flagellate Giardia intestinalis: oxygen and its reaction products collapse membrane potential and cause cytotoxicity. Microbiology 146: 3109 - 3118 Giardia ...


2

In a 1987 article "Nonenteric Infections Acquired through Contact with Water", the author mentioned that "Infection of the ears, throat, respiratory tract, and cornea are also encountered" by virulent strains of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleri. The only reference that implicates Naegleria fowleri is this one, but it doesn't mention modes of infection. ...


2

Yes, pollinating fig wasps are gall inducing and mutualistic at the same time, and actually essential for the pollination of figs (see e.g Martinson et al., 2015). During the very intricate mutualism, fig wasps deposit eggs in some of the flowers and leave others. The flowers with eggs and later larvae will develop into galls that will produce new wasps but ...


2

I have finally figured out what these are, and it turns out I greatly misunderstood their relationship with snails. These worms are annelids of the genus Chaetogaster, specifically Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei. Source: Page 653 of "Fresh-water biology" (1918) Ch. l. limnaei is unique in its genus in that lives on the bodies and in the shells of snails, ...


2

It is hard to say for certain, but the insect hanging from the spider looks like it may be a member of the family Elateridae, commonly known as a "click beetle". As far as I know, they're harmless and no threat to a spider. The close binding of the legs with silk suggest that the click beetle(if that is indeed what the insect is) may have been a meal prior ...


1

It happens I just found an answer to my question in a recent review book by George Heimpel and Nicolas Mills. It appears that for now we do not know any parasitoid of mosquitoes. Quoting chapter 1 : "Most insect herbivore species are attacked by one or more parasitoid species, but some major arthropod pest groups appear to be entirely free of ...


1

Short answer size. endo/ectoparasites need to be small to go unnoticed, and be hard to eliminate. The smallest mammals and birds are still much larger than a flea, fluke or other endoparasite. That's why larger parasites leave after feeding, if a vampire bat hung on the cow indefinitely the cow would eventually notice and do something, something as simple ...


1

Previous answers to the question seem to originate from one misunderstanding. Of course, the large-small distinction between predators and parasites is easily observed by anyone, like the fact that predators kill their prey while parasites only sap the strength of their hosts. But parasites do not actually attack a host. Parasites attack only a TINY ...


1

According to wikipedia they locate "prey" by detecting CO2 and some other compounds, so I don't think mosquitoes will actually find the blood unless they're accidentally right on top of it. And for your reason: if you have the equipment to regularly draw some blood, keep it at 37 C and have some anticoagulants on hand, you might be better off using some ...


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